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The Port Drayage Process 11 verify that the container is clean and empty. If the container and chassis pass inspection, an EIR will be issued for the return, and the driver will be given instructions on where to take the equipment. Return to Depot Empty containers may be stored in off-terminal depots because they are being "off-hired" (re- turned to a leasing company) or because a scarcity of space forces them out of the main terminal. Reuse Reusing an empty import container for an export load, sometimes called a "street turn," can significantly reduce drayage trips. There are, however, major institutional and informational bar- riers to reuse, and the practice is uncommon at most ports. Drayage Subprocesses Within the overall drayage process there are several subprocesses that reoccur. These are dis- cussed below to emphasize the commonalities. Security Since September 2001, Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has adopted the goal of pass- ing every import container through a radiation portal monitor (RPM) at the marine terminal. As of 2008, implementation of this process still varies widely, with many major terminals hav- ing RPMs on site, but others having RPMs outside the terminal or shared by multiple terminals. The TSA-issued Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) is gradually being implemented at U.S. ports. A TWIC is required for any drayage driver entering the terminal. TWICs have embedded RFID capability, but the RFID readers are not yet available. Marine ter- minal entry gates are thus having drivers display TWICs for visual inspection. Eventually, TSA plans to incorporate TWIC readers in entry gate installations. Some ports and terminals have additional security requirements or procedures. One example is the Port Check identification card issued at the Port of New York and New Jersey. In-Gate Processing At the marine terminal, the driver will join the queue (if there is one) at the inbound gate as shown in Figure 25. The inbound gate process fulfills multiple purposes, as follows: To verify the identity of the driver and his firm, and their eligibility to complete the transac- tion (e.g., picking up an import load); To verify that the specified container is indeed available and ready to go (cleared, with all fees paid); To check the condition and complete an EIR for any ocean carrier equipment being inter- changed (container, chassis, genset); To instruct the driver where to pick up the container; and To dispatch or queue-up the required terminal lift equipment. Although there are many minor variations on inbound gate configurations and processing, there are two basic types: one-stage and two-stage.

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12 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide Source: Port of Los Angeles Web site. Figure 25. Marine terminal entrance gate. One-Stage Inbound Gates At a one-stage gate, all of the above functions are typically fulfilled by a gate clerk in a booth. The driver usually does not communicate with terminal personnel until reaching the actual gate. All gate processes are performed there, including any problem resolution. The clerk will accept information from the driver, enter it in the terminal information system, verify the transaction, inspect the equip- ment, and issue a written "yard slip" or oral instructions on where to proceed in the container yard. If exceptions occur at a one-stage inbound gate, the clerk usually tries to resolve them on the spot. This delays not only the affected driver, but also all the other drivers queued up behind him. For more complex problems the driver may be sent to a separate "trouble window." Instances in which the driver cannot enter the terminal (e.g., no valid interchange agreement or no legitimate transaction) are particularly troublesome, as such "turnaways," and seriously disrupt the flow of traffic through the gates. One-stage gates are most often found at older or smaller terminals where the volume of business may not justify the investment in two-stage systems or where there is not enough physical space. Two-Stage Inbound Gates Two-stage gates (Figure 26) have become the norm for newer and larger marine terminals. There are many variations, but the two stages are usually divided as follows. In the first stage, the driver pulls up to a pedestal equipped with a phone, keypad, card reader, or other device for communicating with the terminal clerks and information system. This first stage establishes the identity of driver and drayage firm, verifies the legitimacy of the transaction, and verifies container availability. If an exception occurs in any of those steps and cannot be resolved within a couple of minutes, the driver is either turned away or sent to a trouble window. The first stage pedestals should be located far enough from the second stage gates to allow trucks to leave the queue with a minimum of disruption. Exceptions at this stage should cause only a short delay to other trucks in the queue. Once the "paperwork" is done (mostly electronically), the driver is advanced to the second stage, which is the actual terminal entry gate. At this point, any inbound equipment is inspected, whether in person or remotely via video cameras, and a yard slip with instructions is issued. Ex- ceptions at the second stage would most likely involve equipment condition, and such units would be sent to a trouble window.

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The Port Drayage Process 13 Arrive at terminal IMPORT LOAD OUT Exit terminal or restart Y import load out process Join Proceed to Provide in-gate communications identity and Abandon current queue pedestal pickup number transaction? N In-gate Entry Gate TE A N G E G Is the Go to Retrieve Proceed to A N Trouble ST information Talk to trouble trouble resolved in 30 bobtail LE complete? dispatcher B window ticket minutes? Y bypass lane U O D Y Inspection gate Retrieve yard ticket Figure 26. Two-stage in-gate subprocess. Two-stage gates have the advantage of identifying and segregating (or turning away) driv- ers with transaction problems before they reach the actual terminal entry. When combined with video inspection systems they also allow terminal operators to physically distance clerks from the gate itself and from personal interactions with drivers (which can sometimes become contentious). Two-Stage Gate Equivalents Some terminals are experimenting with other gate configurations. At Bayport in Houston, the one-stage gate will still have the ability to remove problematic trucks from the gate processing area and thereby prevent them from creating a bottleneck. Staff determined that processing at each stage was fast enough that there was not a sufficient need to have the trucks stop twice. On-Terminal Chassis Supply Once in the container yard, there are the following three principal ways for a drayage driver to locate and hook up to a container or chassis: By locating a container already mounted on a chassis at a wheeled terminal, By locating a bare chassis and taking it to a container stack where a lift machine will mount the container in a stacked terminal, or By locating a bare chassis and taking it to a designated zone where a lift machine will bring and mount the container in a transfer zone terminal. In all three cases, the driver goes through the process of locating, inspecting, hooking up, and testing a chassis. Figure 27 displays this process. Data obtained from two case study terminals illustrate the extra time required for obtaining a chassis at the terminal. At one terminal, grounded transactions that required the driver to ob- tain a terminal chassis averaged 16 minutes longer than grounded transactions for which the driver brought a chassis. At the other, less congested terminal, the average difference was 9 min- utes. The weighted average was 12 minutes longer when a chassis search was required. In both cases, the standard deviation was smaller when the trucker provided the chassis, indicating less variability. These differences probably reflect two factors: the additional gate time required to interchange and inspect the chassis, and the time required within the terminal to locate and check an appropriate chassis.

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14 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide SELECTING AND CHECKING A CHASSIS FROM A POOL OR PARKING LOT Locate Back Crank up Make air Arrive at suitable Is Y tractor landing gear Chassis tires Y Chassis lights Y and Proceed to next chassis pool or chassis chassis under to drop and mud flaps in and brakes in good valid? good condition? electrical condition? process parking slot specified chassis chassis onto connections on ticket kingpin tractor N N N Proceed to roadability Major Minor Major Minor canopy repair repair repair repair (if applicable) Restart process or swap chassis Figure 27. Chassis subprocesses. Radiation Portal Monitor Processing Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are installed and operated by CBP or contractor personnel. RPMs (Figure 28) are designed to detect any unusual radiation from a container, indicating the presence of potentially dangerous undeclared cargo (contraband or a weapon). Any radiation detected by the RPM is compared with the known characteristics of the declared cargo. If the radiation pattern is consistent with the cargo, the container is released. If not, the container may be rescanned at the RPM, sent for more intensive Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) screening, held for CBP inspection, or sent to an off-terminal inspection station. Source: SAIC Web site. Figure 28. Radiation portal monitor.

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The Port Drayage Process 15 PASSING THROUGH CUSTOMS RADIATION PORTAL MONITOR (RPM) Proceed Wait for N Go to Go to full Join Is reading Is reading N Is cargo N Arrive at RPM through clearance acceptable? secondary acceptable? inspection legitimate? queue RPM from CBP scan station Y Y Y Proceed to next process CBP seizes cargo. Driver waits for clearance from CBP Figure 29. RPM subprocesses. As Figure 29 indicates, routine processing through an RPM involves waiting in a queue, pass- ing through the RPM, and waiting for CBP clearance. The process takes only a few minutes un- less there is a long queue. RPM placement is not yet completely standardized and can vary by port and terminal. CBP's preference is to have all RPM screening within the terminal, before the driver reaches the exit gate. In some current installations such as Maher Terminal at NYNJ, however, space constraints have led to placement of the RPMs outside the terminal inspection gates as a separate security process step. Delays and exceptions can occur in RPM processing when Long queues develop because of peaking or a shortage of operable RPMs (due to down time or staffing shortfalls); False positives occur, leading to rescans; or Radiation readings are inconsistent with declared cargo (often due to inaccuracy or misdec- laration), and lead to a CBP "hold" until resolved. The first two instances may impose delays of up to around 30 minutes. A CBP "hold" stops the transaction, forcing the driver to either leave or switch to another assignment. Out-Gate Processing Processes at terminal exit gates or out-gates are ordinarily simpler and quicker than at inbound gates. The primary purpose of out-gate processing is to verify that the driver has completed the correct transaction and that any necessary paperwork or systems entry is complete. Drivers leaving bobtail, without chassis or equipment, often exit via a bypass gate. Drivers leaving with containers on chassis will present or enter yard slips or pickup numbers to verify that they have a legitimate transaction and have picked up the correct unit. There are ordinarily no inspections at the outbound gate. For outbound empties or loads, an EIR is completed and issued under the assumption that the driver has completed any neces- sary inspections and repairs, and that the equipment is in good condition (and that any dam- age found at a subsequent inbound inspection is the responsibility of the drayage firm). Any exceptions or disputes relating to equipment condition would ordinarily be resolved before the driver reaches the outbound gate.