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Introduction 3 Instead, the guidebook focuses on strategies for identifying and quantifying what can be consid- ered "normal" congestion that reflects a well-utilized terminal and differentiating this from bottle- necks, cascading delays, or redundant dray trips that hold down the efficiency of a terminal and the productivity of drayage truckers. This distinction between these two categories is rarely clear and depends, to a certain extent, on the perspective of the participants. Congestion and delay at marine terminal gate queues and container yards is primarily caused by peaking, and can be exacerbated by limitations on working hours, external factors such as the OffPeak Program, or shortcomings of legacy facilities. There will always be comparative peaks in demand, regardless of volume. Even if a terminal is running under capacity, it will usually have peak periods where the volume temporarily exceeds the allocated labor. Most peaks follow recur- ring patterns known to port staff. Beyond congestion within the terminal, congestion on urban streets and highways is ordinarily beyond the control of terminals or truckers, but port author- ities may have some influence. Extended gate hours (early morning and late evening) do, however, assist truckers in avoiding the worst peak traffic hours. Even with the most meticulous preparation, there is no such thing as a problem-free system. Drayage is a part of a complex international trading system in which occasional miscommunica- tions between parties are a part of doing business. Errors in paperwork, for example, may not be the fault of the drayage driver, yet they can still cause delays for the driver and the drayage system. Every participant expects periodic congestion due to the ebb-and-flow nature of the business. Accordingly, the study team attempted to determine the frequency and causes of unexpected or unexpectedly severe delays, unnecessary bottlenecks, and wasteful extra trips, and to identify best practices to reduce those problems. Despite their local orientation, drayage operations are nevertheless a component of a much longer international supply chain. Truck drayage systems exist at major container ports around the world, and although the trucks used at Shanghai or Rotterdam may look quite different, their func- tion in the supply chain is very similar to drayage trucks in the United States. Although most large ports have rail linkages as well, almost all container ports rely on drayage for a large percentage of hinterland connections to surrounding urban areas. The profile of drayage has increased sharply in the last few years as its potential role in reducing air pollution has been recognized. Ports around the country have instituted "clean trucks" pro- grams aimed at improving the environmental performance of trucks calling at their terminals. In addition to the most well known program at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach (California), programs are aimed at improving drayage emissions at Seattle/Tacoma (Washington), Oakland (California), New York/New Jersey, Houston (Texas), Baltimore (Maryland), and Savannah (Georgia), with more programs in the planning stages. These policy interventions into the dray industry make a thorough understanding of the drayage system even more important. The impact of drayage on emissions and greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is directly attributable to time spent idling and moving. Delays that increase idling and inefficiencies that create extra trips add to emissions and congestion without increasing transportation service or value. Use of this guidebook should help participants in containerized transportation reduce such delays and keep extra trips to a minimum. Purpose and Organization of This Guidebook NCFRP Report 11: Truck Drayage Productivity Guide is intended to be a practitioner's guide to measuring, analyzing, and improving port intermodal drayage. The target stakeholders include port authorities, marine terminal operators, drayage firms, and regional transportation planners.