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CHAPTER 4 Drayage Problems and Solutions Problem and Solution Matrix The NCFRP Project 14 study team developed a master matrix to systematically display salient study findings. The matrix displays the following information for the major bottlenecks and sources of delay identified in the project: Nature of the problem; Causes--proximate and root; Impacts, absolute and relative, on drayage time, cost, service, and emissions; Potential solutions; Implementation strategies; Potential implementation barriers; Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders; and Examples of successful implementation. Table 41 displays the matrix. The matrix provides a condensed overview of the major port drayage bottlenecks and sources of delay, and a starting point for analysis of drayage issues at specific ports and terminals. The sig- nificance of the problems in a nationwide context is displayed to help practitioners gauge the likely consequences of local issues and prioritize problem-solving efforts. The major problem categories shown correspond to chapter headings in this guidebook. Drayage Problems The problems are displayed as rows, dividing the matrix into horizontal sections. The matrix is organized to identify four main problems and six aspects of the first problem as follows: 1. Long and unpredictable overall truck turn times at marine terminals, Long and unpredictable marine terminal gate queuing Marine terminal gate processing delays Marine terminal procedural exceptions and trouble tickets Container chassis supply time and delays Marine terminal container yard congestion delays Marine terminal disruptions 2. Extra drayage trips ("dry runs"), 3. Extra empty equipment moves, and 4. Congestion on streets and highways. 33

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Table 41. Problem and solution matrix. Causes Impacts Solutions Implementation Practices & Technology & Proximate Root Time Cost Emissions Service Facilities Institutions Strategies Barriers Roles Example Systems Summary Problem Statement: Long and Unpredictable Overall Turn Times at Marine Terminals Long queue times Peaking Shipper-driven Suboptimization, motor Improve communication, Gate processing Gate capacity and Average about 1 24 million gate Modernize Effective communication, education, carrier experiences most collaboration, proficiency, Recognize and delays hours hour per transactions electronic and cooperation of cost standardization Unpredictability address issue Chassis logistics, transaction annually communication Continuous systems quality Logistics channel Marine terminals: problem CY delays makes it difficult M&R Significant Adequate Port community improvement complexity resolution for motor avoidable capacity communication Modernize & expand Marine labor Chassis logistics Capacity shortfalls carriers to meet $1.2 billion of emissions and collaboration facilities agreements Motor carriers: problem 5% of service Shipper-driven Continuous trucker time Inexperienced drivers identification, cooperation Problem resolution Process Exceptions transactions take standards actions (e.g., this quality Enhance worker proficiency spent in marine Right and carriers much longer study) improvement terminals technology Congestion Exceptions Standardization Some capital required Shippers: drive the process Problem: Long and Unpredictable Marine Terminal Gate Queuing Faster gate All--improve Peaking Longer gate hours Dedicated process Continuous systems quality communication, empty & chassis Driver/truck arrivals Avg. 20 min $16.66 per Remain open at improvement Suboptimization, motor collaboration, proficiency, Pier Pass yards OCR exceed short-term queue at inbound inbound gate meal times carrier experiences most and standardization Estimated gate capacity Marine Terminal gate move of cost standard Dedicated gates for Two-stage gates Video gate Port community Modernize & expand Marine terminals--primary Capacity 20 min of deviation more simple transactions or equivalent inspection communication facilities problem resolution Management idling and than 30 min 4-5 million creeping per Email, web, and/or Lack of RPMs Motor carriers--problem annual inbound move gate camera High-tech gates RFID Enhance worker proficiency Variability in gate (outgate) identification, cooperation Times range from gate moves information processing time Legacy facilities require near-zero to Gate closures for Nearby truck Pre-Clearance capital to modernize Shippers--drive the multiple hours. Problem worse Pre-cleared trucks Street turns breaks $67-$83 million stops with PINS process at legacy gate PierPass Lack of close nationwide APM Portsmouth Ports--port community Morning queues facilities RPM installation Standardization Appointment systems overnight parking example communication Problem: Marine Terminal Gate Processing Delays $1.00 extra per Slow gate Avg. 3-5 minutes Execute existing Slow legacy systems inbound gate At legacy gates Two-stage processing per move Well-trained drivers procedures Marine labor Marine terminals and motor move a driver with a gates or and gate clerks agreements carriers: training Gate closures for Labor agreements & Additional clean equivalent Pre-clearance & Port-wide 5% of moves = 4-5 million breaks practices idling and transaction can appointment education and Automate, speed gate 20+% of total inbound gate creeping be delayed by systems training process Ports: information Exceptions time moves per year Fast diversion to High tech gates Gate processing other long Inexperienced drivers dissemination trouble window for time variability One-stage gates w/o Avg. move $ 4-5 million transactions APM and carriers Customer: choice of exceptions Increase worker proficiency bypass delayed by 1 annual extra Portsmouth experienced truckers Problem: Marine Terminal Procedural Exceptions, Trouble Tickets Dispatch errors Changing conditions, $50 per trouble Clean and timely Uneven procedural Booking errors inaccurate info ticket customer booking Marine terminals One hour driver compliance by shippers, communicate System flaws, delay for a Proactive Do it right the first time marine carriers, motor 5% of 24 million requirements and Marine terminal customer practices, trouble ticket management of Continuous carriers, and marine annual procedures clearly All parties--more accurate, system errors transaction One-hour delay non-standard improvement to terminals transactions Extra idling timely instructions and complexity per exception moves meet changing communications Additional time needs Experienced, Information and for clerks, Lack of easily accessible $60 million for trained drivers, training for new Continuous exception Driver error Inexperience, error dispatchers, information on correct motor carriers motor carriers, and and occasional reduction customers, and procedures clerks drivers marine carriers Problem: Marine Terminal Chassis Logistics Delays Limited chassis $10 per chassis Congestion at Chassis pools with Pool operators continue to interchangeability search Update legacy Let market forces continue Chassis Yards greater Traditional chassis expand operations Poor maintenance Applicable to Chassis pools Right sized chassis to drive a transition to Estimated participation and supply approach Frequent chassis Average 12 min grounded 12 min of management improve chassis standard geographic scope Motor carriers own more Waits for lift or flip changes when driver must terminals idling and systems to keep management deviation more chassis obtain chassis 20-30% of all creeping Dry, well up with legal Continue to Time to locate, than 5 min containers Trucker-owned organized, and market implement FMCSA Undercapitalized motor Chassis supply inspect, and hook up Marine carriers provide $2-4 million chassis maintained, and trends roadability Safety regulation carriers exceptions chassis fewer chassis annually lighted regulations

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Causes Impacts Solutions Implementation Practices & Technology & Proximate Root Time Cost Emissions Service Facilities Institutions Strategies Barriers Roles Examples Systems Problem: Marine Terminal Container Yard Congestion Delays Delays inside Legacy facilities require Gate flow/container Avg. $8.33 per Densify the and outside capital to modernize and yard imbalance inbound gate Maintain gate flows marine terminal terminal densify in balance with the Inside gate turn Facilities, equipment 4-5 million rest of the marine Additional Increase Insufficient container times vary by 20- 10 min of Unpredictable, investment Appointment systems Marine terminal must invest Congestion in the inbound gate terminal's terminal container yard capacity or lift 30 min with idling and unreliable have some promise but or work longer to increase container yard moves per year capabilities equipment handling congestion creeping service have not yet been used capacity automation Uneven flow and successfully to $33-$42 million Off terminal peaking in CY Estimate 10 min significantly smooth annually Longer terminal chassis and Equipment location per inbound gate Smooth work flow work flow nationwide hours container yards problem (UTL) Problem: Marine Terminal Disruptions Process or facility Inefficiency $50 per trip changes Estimate one Crisis management Management terminal teams Systems failure Major delays for changes One extra hour or disruption both disrupted Communicate more for motor annually One extra terminal and Add temporary Redundant nature and details Add resources; typically Disorganized, congested Marine terminal--problem Ocean carrier tenant carriers forced to hour of idling other terminals facilities system of crisis and land and labor facilities resolution Natural disaster or shifts use the disrupted 250,000 trips per and creeping served by the Shift of resources remedies accident Sudden increase in terminal. terminal same truckers volume Strikes Short-term terminal $12.5 million Longer terminal Short-term performance lapse annually hours interruptions Problem: Extra Drayage Trips, "Dry Runs" Dispatch or driver $ 100 per Proactive Motor carrier--problem Poor communication Inexperienced workers error occurrence dispatchers resolution Continuous Poor communication, Varies depending 0.1% of Missed Make use of Communicate Booking error Extra miles improvement to Inaccurate systems customer error upon distance; containers customer available systems when exceptions Increase worker proficiency Support by others to and idling add shipment assume 2 hours appointments arise provide accurate Poor visibility $1.2 million Well-trained clerks Procedural information. Terminal error Communication, annually and drivers discrepancies system error Problem: Extra Empty Equipment Moves Vessel Sharing Daily Extra drayage $75 per move Agreements Marine terminals communications moves within port Improve equipment Traditional practices Estimate 1% of and carriers direct with motor New UIIA Empty equipment in Chassis pools complex Delay in empty distribution practices to take Marine carriers--primary containers Extra moves return of empty carriers using a provisions add wrong location positioning advantage of new problem resolution Ocean carrier equipment to variety of latest flexibility Assume 1.5 $9 million flexibilities tenant shifts different locations technology; Terminal congestion hours per move annually Human error web, email, etc. Problem: Congestion on Streets and Highways Highway capacity $50/hour Motor carrier Traffic Recurring shortfall 10% penalty on Port Authority--leadership Significant, dispatch to avoid monitoring Difficult, time consuming congestion Road condition 4 hour driving Missed Build/expand Port community Proactive port community role unable to Extra idling congestion systems problems day customer key intermodal active in highway advocacy to gain share of quantify the time and creeping $25 per day appointments Minimize connectors planning highway improvement funds Nonrecurring Congestion, inability penalty Port community--strong $150 million operations during Webcams Long-term effort incidents to recover political support annually peak hour