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Drayage Problems and Solutions 37 These estimates provide guidance on the absolute and relative importance of the various problems. The overall cost of driver and tractor time spent in marine container terminals is estimated at over $1 billion annually. (The total cost of drayage is much higher, because it includes time in transit and at customer locations, as well as time at the ports.) Queuing at the marine terminal gates is estimated to cost $67$83 million annually, while gate processing delays add an estimated $4$5 million to the total. Exceptions and trouble tickets are a major cost factor, with an estimated impact of $60 million annually. The additional cost of obtaining chassis at a stacked terminal, as opposed to arriving with a chas- sis, is estimated at $2$4 million annually. Congestion in the container yard is estimated to cost drayage firms about $33$42 million annually. Congestion cost on highways and streets is impossible to quantify with any precision. The matrix provides a plausible estimate of around $150 million annually, based on 10% of 4 hours of driv- ing per day (as opposed to time waiting) or 24 minutes per day of lost time due to congestion. Service impacts are qualitative, with most problems resulting in delays or missed appointments. Most delays result in extra time spent idling or creeping in queues in terminals or on congested roads. The emissions impacts of those delays have been estimated using the EPA SmartWay DrayFLEET Model, as explained in detail in Chapter 12. Solutions Potential solutions to drayage problems also are identified in the matrices. In general, they encompass steps to mitigate peaking and congestion, and reduce exceptions and trouble tickets as follows: Better use of port and terminal information systems to ensure that import containers are ready to be picked up; Two-stage terminal entry gates (or equivalent capabilities) to segregate and handle exceptions without delaying routine transactions; Appointment systems that can make terminal transactions more predictable and reduce gate and container yard congestion; In the near term, neutral chassis pools to streamline in-terminal chassis logistics; In the long term, trucker-supplied chassis to eliminate in-terminal chassis logistics; Extended gate hours, where required, to reduce and accommodate peaking; Better driver and drayage firm information and training; Importer and exporter preference for experienced drayage firms that understand and use the available productivity tools; Rationalization of empty container and chassis return requirements; Wider use of OCR, RFID, and other technologies to automate, streamline, and routinize terminal gate processing; Proactive chassis maintenance and flagging of defective chassis in terminal pools; Elimination of gate closures for lunch or other breaks; Improved accuracy of exporter booking instructions and documentation; Correction of terminal systems "glitches" that lead to trouble tickets or dysfunctional work-arounds;