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38 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide · Regular meetings and other communication within the port community, including port staff, terminal operators, drayage firms, ocean carriers, customers, and other stakeholders as required; · Sufficient terminal resources and capabilities to simultaneously serve vessels and trucks; · Customer preferences for ocean carriers with good drayage transaction records; · Reduction in port-area and urban street and highway congestion; and · Improvements to legacy marine terminals. Implications for Stakeholders A review of the matrices, the list of problems, and the list of solutions suggests roles for all of the stakeholders in containerized shipping and port operations as follows: · Port authorities can improve communications, support legacy terminal improvements, coor- dinate appointment systems, and participate in port-area congestion mitigation. · Marine container terminals can improve gate processing, reduce operating system "glitches," stagger break times to prevent gate closures, extend gate hours as required, and increase capa- bilities to simultaneously serve vessels and trucks. · Drayage firms can increase their driver training effort, maximize use of port and terminal cargo clearance systems, and work with customers to reduce booking errors. · Ocean carriers can rationalize empty returns, reduce booking errors and exceptions, and sup- port terminal improvements and extended gates. · Customers can reduce booking and paperwork errors, and use experienced, knowledgeable drayage firms. · Local and regional planners can mitigate congestion on port-area streets and highways. Although each stakeholder group can achieve marginal improvements working indepen- dently, large-scale solutions will require coordinated efforts by multiple parties.