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38 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide Regular meetings and other communication within the port community, including port staff, terminal operators, drayage firms, ocean carriers, customers, and other stakeholders as required; Sufficient terminal resources and capabilities to simultaneously serve vessels and trucks; Customer preferences for ocean carriers with good drayage transaction records; Reduction in port-area and urban street and highway congestion; and Improvements to legacy marine terminals. Implications for Stakeholders A review of the matrices, the list of problems, and the list of solutions suggests roles for all of the stakeholders in containerized shipping and port operations as follows: Port authorities can improve communications, support legacy terminal improvements, coor- dinate appointment systems, and participate in port-area congestion mitigation. Marine container terminals can improve gate processing, reduce operating system "glitches," stagger break times to prevent gate closures, extend gate hours as required, and increase capa- bilities to simultaneously serve vessels and trucks. Drayage firms can increase their driver training effort, maximize use of port and terminal cargo clearance systems, and work with customers to reduce booking errors. Ocean carriers can rationalize empty returns, reduce booking errors and exceptions, and sup- port terminal improvements and extended gates. Customers can reduce booking and paperwork errors, and use experienced, knowledgeable drayage firms. Local and regional planners can mitigate congestion on port-area streets and highways. Although each stakeholder group can achieve marginal improvements working indepen- dently, large-scale solutions will require coordinated efforts by multiple parties.