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CHAPTER 2 The Port Drayage Process Port Drayage Transactions In any port drayage operation, the need to move loaded containers drives the system. Move- ments of empty containers, bare chassis, and bobtail tractors ordinarily result from loaded move- ments. A driver's duty cycle can be a series of repetitive shuttles (e.g., between marine and off-dock rail terminals) or a complex pattern of multiple tasks. Drivers arriving at a marine terminal entrance gate are anticipating one of the transaction types or combinations shown in Table 21. The shaded cells in Table 21 are the eight routine transactions usually found at marine terminals. They have different functional requirements that drive gate processing times and associated queuing. Inbound or outbound bobtails (drayage tractor movements without a chassis or container) have the advantage of not needing an inspection, since no equipment is being interchanged from trucker to ocean carrier. Many terminals have separate unmanned bobtail gates for this reason. Bobtail drivers still must identify themselves and have their transaction verified (e.g., picking up an empty or loaded container on chassis). Bobtails are non-revenue moves and, therefore, are minimized. Inbound bare chassis movements are relatively rare at wheeled terminals, and will remain so as long as the chassis fleets and pools are maintained on the terminals themselves. Bare chassis moves are much more common where space limitations have pushed chassis pools to remote lots, and where on-terminal chassis storage is limited and the overflow is drayed off site. Bare chassis moves are also sometimes required for specialized container types. Bare chassis moves will likely increase if, and when, truckers take over the chassis supply. Inbound empty and loaded containers on chassis both need inspections. An empty container also theoretically requires the driver or clerk to open the doors to check the interior; an export load requires the cargo seal to be checked for number and condition. Inbound loaded containers for export typically require the most paperwork, because the ter- minal is accepting the container and the export goods inside on behalf of the ocean carrier (steamship line). Outbound empty containers to be loaded with exports are not inspected at the gate under the assumption that the driver has inspected the equipment (not always true) and accepted respon- sibility for its return in good condition (when it will be inspected by terminal personnel). Outbound import loads outnumber inbound export loads and tend to receive most of the attention paid to drayage issues. Usually, the driver must have a "pickup number" or other means of verifying his eligibility to pick up the loaded container. On exiting the terminal, the drayage company assumes responsibility for both the equipment and the load. 5