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CHAPTER 8 Container Chassis Supply Time and Delays Chassis Logistics Chassis logistics are a uniquely prominent issue at U.S. ports for two reasons. First, chassis are far more complex and subject to damage than containers, are subject to highway safety require- ments, and account for the great majority of equipment-related delays and problems. Second, in the United States, chassis are normally provided by the ocean carriers and usually stored and main- tained on the marine terminal. As of 2007, there were roughly 650,000 international chassis in the United States (and about 160,000 domestic chassis). About 90% of the international chassis were provided by individual ocean carriers or alliances, with the rest provided by others (neutral or cooperative pools or motor carriers). The chassis is usually owned by the ocean carrier and interchanged with the container, so chas- sis ownership must ordinarily match container ownership. An APL container must be on an APL chassis, a Maersk container on a Maersk chassis, etc. A drayage firm with permission to pick up a container from one carrier would not have permission to use another carrier's chassis to do so, despite complete physical interchangeability. The cost, delay, productivity, and capacity penalties associated with container logistics are largely avoidable. Provision of container chassis by ocean carriers at the marine terminals is a legacy of containerization's origins in the United States The original Sea-Land System, as envisioned and implemented by Malcolm McLean, functioned as a trucking company with a waterborne line-haul. As such, Sea-Land provided the chassis to let the marine containers operate as truck trailers. This practice set the pattern for other U.S. operators and has persisted in the United States, where the land area in terminals permits either wheeled storage or the maintenance of on-site chassis fleets. Everywhere else in the world container chassis are supplied by customers, truckers, or off- terminal pools, and are brought to the marine terminal by the drayage driver. Drivers in other countries do not interchange chassis with the ocean carriers or terminal operators. Costs or delays in obtaining a chassis are therefore an internal drayage company issue in those countries, and of no concern to the marine terminals (as long, obviously, as the chassis is functional). Container chassis logistics can become a drayage bottleneck in several of the following ways where drayage drivers: Incur delays in locating and attaching a serviceable chassis in grounded marine terminals, Incur delays in repairing or swapping unserviceable or mismatched chassis in wheeled marine terminals, Are delayed by chassis condition issues at inbound or outbound gates, and Are required to make extra trips to obtain or drop a chassis at a second location (a "split delivery"). 64