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Container Chassis Supply Time and Delays 67 3. Highway citations. Drayage operations are subject to the same highway laws as other truck movements, and complaints about the condition of drayage equipment often lead local police or highway patrol officers to pay special attention to trucks entering or leaving the port. Cita- tions for defective equipment are costly. The laws affect the operation of defective or unsafe equipment, not the ownership, so it is the driver who is cited. If the chassis passes all of these checks, the driver is ready to either leave with the mounted con- tainer or take the chassis to have a container transferred from the stacks. If the chassis has a minor problem such as low tire pressure, a broken tail light lens, or a missing mud flap, the driver usually has the option to take the chassis to a roadability canopy or similar facility, to be fixed on the way out. In well-run terminals drivers generally choose this option rather than searching for another chassis because it takes less time (i.e., a few minutes). When the chassis has a more serious problem, such as structural damage or non-functional land- ing gear, most drivers will search for another chassis rather than waiting to have the first one fixed. If the container is already mounted on an incorrect or defective chassis, the driver must choose between (1) waiting to have it fixed, (2) waiting for a chassis "flip," or (3) choosing another unit. In the workshops, the study team learned that the driver will typically spend around 30 minutes trying to resolve such a problem before switching to another transaction. Serious delays can occur when there is no suitable chassis in good condition immediately available. Chassis parking takes up valuable terminal space, so many terminals stack extra chas- sis or store them vertically in racks. Drivers sometimes find that the suitable chassis in good con- dition are thus inaccessible. The terminal operator may prefer to have the driver wait while an available chassis is fixed rather than dispatch terminal employees and equipment to retrieve another chassis from the stack or rack (and ocean carrier equipment policies may enforce this preference). Drivers also sometimes report having to move one or more chassis on the ground to gain access to a good one. A clear inefficiency, one that is common to most terminals, is that once a driver has inspected a chassis and found it defective, he does not mark it or identify it in any way so that future drivers do not engage in the same futile process. Thus, there is a possibility that the same bad chassis can cause a series of delays for multiple truckers before it is repaired or removed. Ultimately, the decision as to whether a chassis is rejected or accepted is entirely dependent on the judgment of the driver. Furthermore, the same driver will accept or reject a specific chassis dependent on the situation. For example, if no additional chassis remain that are roadworthy, the driver will select a non- roadworthy chassis and have it repaired prior to leaving the terminal. Chassis Flips Containers are mounted before the driver's arrival in a wheeled operation. If the container has been mounted on the correct chassis, there is no delay. In exceptional cases where the container has been mounted on the wrong chassis due to error or expediency, the container must be trans- ferred to a correct chassis before the driver can take it out of the terminal. A chassis "flip" of this kind can easily result in a delay of an hour or more. The incorrect chas- sis with the container, a correct bare chassis, and a lift machine must all be brought together for the transfer. Although it may not be the drayage driver's obligation to do so, the fastest way to accomplish this is often for the driver to find a correct chassis and pull it to the loaded one. The transfer is commonly made by a mobile lift machine. Chassis flips of this kind are also one of the few significant bottlenecks at rail intermodal terminals.