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8 Truck Drayage Productivity Guide Wheeled operations are the most economical for marine terminal operators because they min- imize both capital and labor. Terminals prefer to put import boxes on chassis, and any special- ized containers (refrigerated, tank, hazmat, overweight, etc.) as well. As wheeled terminals become crowded, the operators tend to segregate and stack empties. Empties are light and can be handled by the least expensive lift equipment, such as heavy duty fork lifts. Empties are typically stacked by type and ownership and can be managed last-in/first-out (LIFO). As additional capacity is required (or planned from the beginning), the terminal begins stacking loaded containers off their chassis--first exports, then imports. The stacks are serviced by RTGs, straddle carriers, or--in the case of APM Portsmouth, Virginia--by rail-mounted gantries. During extended slow periods, some stacked terminals will revert to wheeled operations to reduce costs. Uniform Intermodal Interchange & Facilities Access Agreement The Uniform Intermodal Interchange & Facilities Access Agreement (commonly called the UIIA, based on its previous title of Uniform Intermodal Interchange Agreement) is a standard drayage industry interchange contract governing the interchange of intermodal equipment between ocean carriers, railroads, equipment leasing companies, and intermodal trucking com- panies. It was developed by the Intermodal Interchange Executive Committee, whose members include representatives of trucking firms, railroads, and ocean carriers, to promote intermodal productivity and operating efficiencies through the development of uniform industry processes and procedures. The UIIA covers most aspects of equipment interchange in port drayage, including facility access, equipment interchange procedures, equipment usage rules, liability and insurance require- ments, administrative processes, and dispute resolution procedures. The UIIA is administered by the Intermodal Association of North America (IANA) and is available at http://www.uiia.org/documents/newuiia-full.pdf Import Drayage Process Figure 23 displays a generic high-level process map for the import drayage process. At the highest level, the process begins with the bill of lading and the vessel manifest--the list of import containers on the inbound ship. The manifest lists the notify parties, those parties that must be notified once the container is unloaded from the ship and ready to be picked up. For a local Consignee Shipping Unload Line container Manifest 1 8 Drayage Firm Drayage Create Bring Drop off Dispatch Pick up Firm receives pickup Load to Empty to driver Load Manifest order importer terminal 2b 3 4 5 7 9 Terminal 2a 6 10 Terminal receives Terminal Terminal receives Manifest delivers Load Empty Figure 23. Import drayage process map.

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The Port Drayage Process 9 import the "notify parties" usually include the consignee (beneficial cargo owner or an interme- diate receiver such as a transloader or broker) and the drayage firm. Once notified by the terminal operator that the container has arrived, the drayage firm will verify when the consignee wants it picked up (or, in the case of multiple containers, the preferred order of delivery). Most experienced port drayage firms will then verify that the container is indeed ready to be picked up via either the ocean carrier's online system, the terminal operator's system, or a port-wide system such as VoyagerTrack or eModal. The drayage firm will verify that the container has cleared Customs, has no unmet need for agricultural or other inspections, is not hazardous, or does not otherwise require special handling, and that all fees have been paid. Correct pre-trip usage of such systems is a major factor in reducing exceptions and delays at the terminals. Consistent and correct usage of the various information systems is also a distin- guishing characteristic of experienced port drayage firms. With the availability of the import container verified, the drayage firm creates a pick-up order and dispatches a driver to the marine terminal. Depending on the previous dispatch, the driver may have no box or chassis (bobtail), an empty container on chassis, an export load, or a bare chassis. Drayage firms attempt to maximize revenue moves by avoiding non-revenue bobtail or bare chas- sis moves and using every opportunity to return empty containers without making extra trips. At the terminal, the driver will go through the gate and container yard subprocesses, detailed in the following guidebook sections. These subprocesses vary between ports and terminals, but all have a few common objectives, as follows: Verifying the identity of the drayage driver and drayage firm, Verifying that the driver's transaction is legitimate and that the desired container is available and cleared for pickup, Checking the condition of any inbound equipment and issuing an Equipment Interchange Report (EIR), Performing the exchange of container and chassis within the container yard, and Verifying the transaction and completing an EIR for outbound equipment. The EIR serves a critical function since it documents the transfer of responsibility for the equipment and its contents between parties. When a driver takes a loaded container or chassis out of the terminal, the drayage firm assumes liability for its timely return in good condition. If the equipment is returned after a specified "free time," the drayage firm will be charged ("de- murrage") for the excess time. If the equipment is judged to have been damaged (beyond nor- mal wear and tear), the drayage firm will be charged for repairs. When equipment is returned to the terminal and inspected, the terminal operator is accepting responsibility and releasing the drayage firm. Under normal circumstances the importer or exporter does not ever take respon- sibility for the container or chassis. Having obtained the loaded import container on a suitable chassis, the driver will then deliver it to the consignee (or alternatively, to a rail intermodal terminal or even another marine termi- nal for ongoing movement). At the consignee location, there are the following two basic options: "Drop and pick," in which the driver positions the import container for subsequent unload- ing and retrieves a previously emptied container for return to the port, and "Stay with," in which the driver waits while the container is unloaded and then returns it to the port. "Drop and pick" operations are preferred because they make better use of the driver's time. "Stay with" trips are usually limited to low-volume customers where there may not be an empty to exchange, or to long-distance customers where the wait for unloading is short compared to the driving time.