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OCR for page 93
Emissions and Cost Impacts 93 Technology Retrofits Particulate Filter/Trap % of eligible fleet retrofit 50% Oxidation Catalyst % of eligible fleet retrofit 50% Flow-Through Filter % of eligible fleet retrofit 50% Idle Reduction Idling Control Strategies % reduction in idle 50% Fuel Conservation Single-Wide Tires % of fleet 50% Automatic Tire Inflation % of fleet 50% Tare Weight Reduction % of fleet 50% lbs of weight saved 2,000 Low Friction Engine Lubricant % of fleet 50% Low Friction Drive Train Lubricant % of fleet 50% Direct Drivetrain % of fleet 50% Single Axle Drive (vs. Dual Axle) % of fleet 50% Speed Management Policy (55 mph) % of fleet 50% Figure 125. DrayFLEET technology and strategy options. These measures have different impacts on drayage emissions and fuel use, depending on which combination of options is applied and how widely they are implemented across the fleet. Data Sources The primary sources for DrayFLEET Model input data are the port authority, the marine ter- minals, and the other activity centers (off-dock rail terminals, container depots, and shipper/ receiver facilities). Port Data Port authorities ordinarily track the inbound (import) and outbound (export) volumes of loaded and empty containers. These data are almost always kept in TEU, but also may be avail- able in containers. Data on empty container flows may not be as readily available and sometimes may not be as accurate. Marine Terminal Data Container terminal operating systems collect information on gate activity. Movement of loaded containers, empty containers, and bare chassis to and from the marine terminals tends to be well documented, but some reconciliation between interchange documentation and gate records may be required. In practice, the accuracy and accessibility of gate information will vary with the accuracy of inputs, the rigor with which the system is maintained, and the experience of those accessing the data. Rail Terminal Data Likewise, comprehensive data on gate transactions is kept by rail intermodal terminal opera- tors and their systems, of which OASIS is a leading example. Although rail terminals are owned and ultimately controlled by the railroads, they are ordinarily operated by contractors. Clerical functions at the gates and any automated systems are supervised by the contractor, as is data