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OCR for page 97
Emissions and Cost Impacts 97 A 14.2% reduction in CO2, A 12.8% and 11.8% reduction in NOx and PM 2.5, respectively and A 14.0% annual cost savings--over $200 million. It is likely that efficiency improvements on this scale would have additional benefits not cap- tured in the DrayFLEET Model. For example, there probably would be an opportunity to retire the oldest, least efficient, and most polluting drayage tractors. It is likely that marine terminal operators would realize associated savings in labor and CY operations, as well as gaining capacity by freeing up land presently being used to store chassis. Implications The cost and emissions estimates derived from DrayFLEET indicate the magnitude of the drayage issue and the value of potential solutions, together or separately. The United States has made tremendous progress in reducing vehicular emissions, but further progress has become increasingly difficult and costly. Port communities face serious technical, economic, and politi- cal challenges in attempting to reduce or control the growth of congestion and emissions from port drayage. The estimates derived for this study indicate the potential scope of improvement achievable through process improvement, reduction of exceptions, and a smooth transition to driver-supplied chassis. Each port area has a different pattern and volume of drayage options, and thus a different potential for improvement through the measures identified in this guidebook. DrayFLEET can be used in local and regional planning efforts to determine the following: The starting point for port-area and regional drayage activity, cost, and emissions (although DrayFLEET is not a substitute for a complete emissions inventory); The impact of local practices, bottlenecks, and delays on costs and emissions; and The potential VMT, cost, fuel, labor, time, and emissions benefits of potential drayage effi- ciency improvements. DrayFLEET (or an equivalent model) can therefore become a valuable tool in investigating and comparing possible solutions and establishing their value to all concerned. The critical factor in using DrayFLEET for this purpose is realism, the close correspondence between model inputs and relationships and actual truck and terminal operations. Time invested up front to obtain accurate input data and to make the appropriate model inputs and adjust- ments yield dividends in credibility within the port and drayage community.