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4 CHAPTER 2 Overview of the Pavement-Type Selection Processes 2.1 Overview identifies equivalent alternatives for the contractor to choose from during bidding. For any given project, the selected pavement type is expected For design-build projects, the agency may determine the to provide the maximum utility value for taxpayers and facil- final pavement type for the project, or otherwise may allow ity users over a predetermined design and analysis period. The the contractor to select the pavement type using the criteria process for selecting pavement type should consider the proj- contained in the request for proposals (RFPs). Contractor- ect requirements as well as the agency's operational policies based selection typically is used for projects where the contrac- and public goals. It entails a careful and rational consideration tor undertakes long-term responsibility for operations and of economic, engineering, and environmental factors. maintenance (O&M) or performance warranty. For projects The pavement-type selection process entails identifying that require contractor-based selection, the agency develops two or more feasible alternatives for a specific project from a contract provisions for the request for proposals or the bid broader group of pavement types or design strategies. A pave- documents. As discussed in Chapter 3, the inputs from the ment life-cycle model is developed for each proposed alter- agency's pavement-type selection committee are incorporated native that constitutes an initial pavement structure and a in identifying feasible alternatives and developing contract sequence (type and timing) of probable maintenance and reha- clauses for both agency-based and contractor-based selection bilitation (M&R) activities. Based on the agency and user costs projects. associated with these activities, the competing alternatives are evaluated for their cost-effectiveness. The economic analysis over the entire life cycle of the pavement is performed using a 2.3 Identification of Feasible deterministic or probabilistic approach. The alternatives are Pavement Alternatives further evaluated to select a preferred strategy using economic The agency-based process begins with identifying potential and noneconomic factors that reflect the agency's goals, poli- candidates for a specific project from an approved list of cies, experience, and project-specific conditions. pavement types. However, the agency may consider some A flow chart of the pavement-type selection process is pro- candidates inappropriate for the project because of physi- vided in Figure 1. As shown, this process is applicable to both cal constraints, constructability issues, or other reasons. The agency-based and contractor-based pavement-type selection. acceptable alternatives are then considered appropriate (fea- sible) candidates for further analysis. Additional discussion of feasible pavement alternatives is presented in Chapter 3. 2.2 Agency Planning and Programming 2.4 Development of Life-Cycle The pavement-type selection process begins with the Strategies for Pavement agency's determination of the contracting type for the proj- Alternatives ect. A project may be procured through traditional design- bid-build or alternate contracting methods. The agency-based For each feasible candidate, the agency identifies the pave- selection process generally is used for design-bid-build proj- ment life-cycle strategies required to achieve target perfor- ects. Alternate pavement-type bidding may be used on tradi- mance levels over a chosen analysis period. The strategies tional design-bid-build projects. In those cases, the agency include identification of the initial pavement section together

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5 Agency planning and programming Identify appropriate contract type for the project YES Is the contract type design-bid-build? NO Alternatives from pavement-type Is project selection committee NO suitable for contractor- YES (see Figure 2) based pavement-type selection? Agency-based Contractor-based pavement-type selection pavement-type selection Identification of feasible Agency develops contract alternatives for project provisions (see Figure 3) Development of pavement life Contractor reviews contract cycle strategies provisions and agency (see Figure 4) practices Contractor makes adjustments Life cycle cost analysis to inputs of agency-based (see Figure 8) selection process Evaluation of economic and noneconomic factors Design-build Performance Design-build projects: projects with O&M: warranty projects: (see Figure 15) Contractor follows Contractor follows Contractor follows Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Agency-based selection of preferred pavement types (see Figure 15) Contractor selects an alternative for the proposal Alternate bidding- Design-bid-build- preferred pavement types preferred pavement type Contractor-based selection (see Figure 16) (see Figure 15) of preferred pavement type (see Figure 18) Figure 1. Overview of the pavement-type selection process.