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In London, training on how to maintain the sys- Specification (PAS) 55--published in 2004. This tem relies on the contractors who are financially liable specification provides guidance on, and a 28-point for the assets under their purview. It is the same in requirements checklist for, good practices in physi- Nottinghamshire: the contractors that have entered cal asset management. Asset intensive industries are into operating and/or maintenance agreements are considered to include gas, electrical and water utili- responsible for maintaining their assets in a state of ties, road, air and rail transport systems, public facil- good repair and are therefore responsible for training ities, and the processing/manufacturing of natural their staff, with the corporate headquarters of each resources. contractor determining the proper level of training. PAS 55 is getting a lot of interest and shows KVV in Karlsruhe has an apprenticeship program promise to become a worldwide specification for any that provides training in the job skills required to organization that wants to create a whole life-cycle maintain the tram system. Manufacturers are respon- management of its physical assets. This standard is sible for training staff in any new technologies based on a concept that the optimal management of installed on their trams and also for providing contin- assets and related costs requires regular evaluation of uing education for the maintenance staff. Berlin's risks and performance. The standard has recently BVG, on the other hand, has no formal training pro- undergone a substantial revision, with the participa- gram, and maintenance workers perform job duties tion of 50 organizations from 15 industry sectors in as assigned. Manufacturers are, however, responsi- 10 countries, and has been adopted as a European ble for training BVG staff in the operation and main- standard. tenance of all new rolling stock introduced to the CTS in Strasbourg operates and maintains the system. transit system through a PPP, a very common arrange- In Oslo, most bus service is provided by third par- ment in France. The ownership of CTS is shared by ties. Contract agreements specify performance mea- the national government, the department of trans- sures and penalties for failure to meet the targets, portation, the city, and a private entity. System main- leaving the training in the hands of the contractor. tenance is comprehensive and starts with a full inventory of all assets (facilities, stations, tracks, and rolling stock) by component. The rolling stock has a TRACKING AND PRIORITIZING INVENTORY comprehensive maintenance plan that is primarily AND MAINTENANCE designed by the equipment manufacturers and has Transport for London uses software from J.D. always included a heavy maintenance plan for mid- Edwards for its financial system and Mincom Ellipse life rehabilitation work. With the adoption of the inter- software for its maintenance and inventory system. national standard PAS 55, CTS is now developing a Mincom is a comprehensive asset management more comprehensive plan for its infrastructure. There system that has a full application to manage the has always been an understanding of the need to do a equipment, inventory, preventative maintenance, condition assessment and to maintain a life-cycle cost- and condition monitoring. The application includes ing plan of all assets, but the difficulty of doing this has a planning module that can be used to allocate meant it has been put on the back burner. The agency resources (e.g., labor, materials, etc.) and equipment is once again trying to raise the priority. strategies. London Underground uses all of these In Germany, national standards are set for new modules, but found it easier to download the assets infrastructure and for maintaining assets. The federal into a spreadsheet for tracking and evaluating the and state governments usually finance the new infra- regular planning of major rehabs and replacement of structure, while it is up to governments at the state and assets. local level to operate and maintain the system. The concept of asset management was not new Federal grants are restricted to projects that exceed when the PPPs were created in the United Kingdom. £50 million, and federal funding is capped at 60% A strong movement for responsible asset strategies with the other 40% normally being split by the state was evident throughout the country. The Institute of and local governments. Anything below this level is Asset Management of the United Kingdom had been usually funded 75% by the state. These grants are working on a standard for years. The resulting out- very competitive, and the application requires a cost- come was a national standard for the optimized benefit analysis showing a return on investment, as management of physical assets--Publicly Available well as an increase in ridership. 17