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Karlsruhe does have life-cycle standards, includ- BVG cannot appropriately plan and create a capi- ing estimated time for major rehab of its assets. Build- tal plan that would keep its assets in a state of good ings are considered to have a 100-year life, tracks repair. have a 50-year life, rail cars a 30-year life, and buses have a 15-year life (stations and facilities were not mentioned). In all instances, the assets are usually CONCLUSION kept longer due to a lack of funding for replacement. The vehicles (trams and buses) go through a rehabil- As different as each country's agencies are, itation/major maintenance process after 8 years. The there were certain aspects that were consistent: bridges are required to be rehabilitated after 10 years. efforts to balance priorities, maintain the infrastruc- These life-cycle standards and major rehabilitation of ture they have, deliver efficient and effective pro- assets are the basis for long-term planning. The agency grams with their financial resources, and provide does maintain a 10-year capital plan. Although the excellent service that is safe and reliable. They agency has a plan outlining what needs to be done, each have programs and strategies in place aimed agency staff pointed out that they were facing a major at maintaining a state of good repair, even though they may frame it differently. Their efforts are simi- maintenance backlog. lar to those of transportation agencies in the United As far as regular maintenance of track and rolling States. stock, priority is usually based on inspection and All of the host agencies had good programs for driver feedback. The manufacturer is required to maintaining their assets. The governing structures and provide a full maintenance plan for all rolling the political will in each city affect what they are able stock, equipment, and infrastructure, which is to successfully implement. They must grapple with then incorporated into the inspections. The agen- some of the same challenges that we do. The agencies cies perform regular inspections to assess asset were creative and open to new ideas; none was satis- condition. fied with the status quo--they were focused on mak- KVV uses SAP software for all of its business ing changes to improve their systems and maximize applications, including their maintenance and inven- their services. tory systems and their short-term and long-term main- tenance plans. The maintenance program includes special software for condition monitoring, ensuring APPENDIX A: STUDY MISSION there was a regular review of the life of assets. TEAM MEMBERS BVG in Berlin also uses SAP as its software for maintaining all of its business applications, including (Affiliations listed were current at the time of the the maintenance and inventory systems. The mainte- study mission.) nance of vehicles and infrastructure are maintained by different groups and are separated in the system. The Jeff Hamm (Team Leader), Executive Director/ company has a lot of experience in monitoring the CEO, Clark County Public Transportation Bene- condition of its assets on a regular basis and has a few fit Area (C-TRAN), Vancouver, Washington internally developed software applications that assist Anthony Beckford, General Manager and CEO, with this. The evaluation and maintenance of assets is Sarasota County Transportation Authority, Sara- based on both technical and operational reliability. sota, Florida Every year, all assets are inspected, and plans are Michael Bradley, Director, Capital Projects & Plan- developed for scheduled replacement. BVG main- ning, Central Ohio Transit Authority, Columbus, tains a list of projects more than 10 years out, but the Ohio company faces a h500 million backlog in projects Stephanie Burris, Budget Manager, Delaware Tran- to bring the assets to a state of good repair. The sit Corporation, Dover, Delaware biggest issue is funding. The current contract with April Chan, Director, Budgets and Grants, San Mateo the city guarantees a fixed budget for operations and County Transit District, San Carlos, California maintenance until 2020, but major rehabilitations Rolando Cruz, Executive Director/Vice President of and replacements are considered special projects Maintenance and Facilities, Long Beach Transit, and that funding is only granted in 2-year cycles. Long Beach, California 18