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The next step in the installation of the IRT system most of which are separated. City officials report, will be to establish the innercity feeder routes. The however, that mustering support for bike facilities innercity feeders are anticipated to begin operating is difficult both with the public and within the city in December 2011. The subsequent milestones of establishment. On the public side, Cape Town hosts Phase 1 include the establishment of feeder routes in a major bike race every summer and is home to a large Table View, Montagu Gardens, and Century City by population of cycling enthusiasts. Most of these, how- February 2012. Following the start of operation of ever, are more interested in racing and professional those feeder routes, a connection to Atlantis will be cycling and have little interest in facilities to support made and will include both a trunk-line extension as recreational or commuter cycling. Within city hall, well as feeder service. Service to Atlantis is antici- transportation engineers still exhibit some intransi- pated to be operation by November 2012. The Du gence regarding cycling and pedestrian facilities. Noon trunk line installation will be the final part of Nevertheless, elected city leaders have seen the sub- the Phase 1 installation and is scheduled to be com- stantial and rapid benefits that can come from the plete in September 2013. relatively small investments required for cycling The city is placing a high priority on develop- facilities and intend to continue the push for a robust ment around the transit stations, but has yet to see network of bike trails in Cape Town. substantial private investment. While transit invest- ments have been the responsibility of the national and provincial governments in the past, this is the TRANSIT PLANNING first time the city of Cape Town has led the effort AND DECISION MAKING to develop public transit. As a result, investor con- Istanbul fidence has not yet risen to the desired level, and privately financed transit-oriented developments In response to growth in population, traffic, and (TODs) are still some time away. City officials have transit congestion, transport and land use plans for begun changing the zoning around stations, but the Istanbul focus on suburbanization. The goals are to process takes up to 18 months and has not been com- relieve transit and roadway congestion in the dense pleted yet. Investors are cautious because of the clear urban core, which is stifling economic activity, and lack of public investment in the existing urban rail to support this suburban growth strategy by improv- system over the preceding 40 years. Cape Town ing transit service to the suburbs. The plan for the officials know they will need to work hard to build new suburban growth is to encourage developments investor confidence around the BRT system. To do with higher densities and mixed uses. Concurrently, so, they understand they will need to do whatever city planners are employing strategies to lessen den- is necessary to ensure the BRT system works well sities in the urban core to help relieve congestion. from the outset. If they succeed, they are confident Implementation of these strategies will lead to a multi- private investment dollars will flow to station-area modal land use development pattern with multiple developments. urban activity centers. As an incentive to stimulate development around The goal is to establish smaller urban areas on the BRT system, the city is considering property tax the outskirts of the city that serve as complete cities, forgiveness for 3 to 5 years in targeted areas. While allowing residents to live and work without travel- city finance officials worry about the revenue impli- ing to the city center. The municipality hopes that var- cations of such a program, the concept has support ious programs will address the needs of the growing from the national government in the form of programs population without impacting the existing vibrancy and authorizations adopted by the previous national of downtown Istanbul. This controlled growth is finance minister, who saw the benefits of TOD and being achieved through several initiatives including who passed a formal resolution to make such tools municipal-built homes in the outlying areas, incen- available to cities. tives to move manufacturing jobs outside of Istanbul, Cape Town also views cycling and walking as construction limitations that reduce densities in the valuable strategies in its IRT System. The city has city center, and pricing that encourages people to developed plans for dedicated cycling and walking move to the new outer areas. paths in both the urban and suburban settings. Thus Reducing the demand on the transportation net- far, they have added 60 kilometers of bicycle trails, work is one of the main goals of these initiatives. 14

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In order to successfully use these new urban areas to Established in 2001, New Cairo was developed when reduce pressure on the city center, these areas must the government sold land to private developers at a meet people's basic needs and must also be served discount to encourage its development. New Cairo by roadways and public transportation. As a result, is an example of the government's desire to reduce these new urban areas are being developed as com- the density of downtown Cairo and to provide connec- plete cities and include schools, shopping, hospitals, tions between the downtown and the new urban areas and employment centers. As these new areas develop, through expanded public transportation. Although one of the challenges facing the city is achieving a currently served by some transit services, there are balance between expansion and creating areas dense future plans to expand transit services to New Cairo enough to support transit. In addition, the city must through an expansion of the subway, light-rail, and use available resources to maintain the existing infra- bus systems. structure and also to serve the newly expanded areas. The development of these new communities Building on the goal to reduce densities in the occurred prior to the establishment of a transporta- urban core, Istanbul has also moved to limit auto- tion network, so the city has implemented a plan to mobile traffic and the resulting gridlock. The city provide the sought-after transportation services in has implemented a strategy to close select streets to these newly established urban areas until the expan- general-purpose automobile traffic in sections of sion of the existing systems is complete. Recognizing the central city, making the streets pedestrian-only that the expansion of the public transportation systems or pedestrian-and-transit-only zones. An example is would be a difficult and slow process, the CTA estab- Istiklal Avenue between Taksim and the Tnel funic- lished a project that provides private transportation ular stop, which is a 1.6 kilometer stretch of street services to the new areas. The transportation needs are that was closed incrementally to general-purpose traf- being met by several private companies. Currently, fic and then had an electric tramway service added one main station acts as a hub to provide service to in 1990. By instituting these pedestrian and transit- these new satellite areas, which allows people to stop only zones in the central city of Istanbul, the areas at one station and easily transfer to another bus. As the became more attractive, which adds to the central government brings additional private companies on city's vibrancy, densities, and congestion levels. board, service will continue to be expanded. The government has a national policy approach to subsidize all forms of transport--for example, Cairo CTA cites the cost per passenger on services as The urban core of Cairo is very dense and 2.5 Egyptian pounds (approximately $0.43) per board- crowded, stressing the capacity of government to ing, while the fare is 1 Egyptian pound (approximately provide core services such as adequate roadway $0.18). The resultant annual subsidy is approxi- and public transportation capacities. As a result, mately 690 million Egyptian pounds (approximately traffic congestion is very high. In response, a key $118.5 million). Similarly, fuel prices for private objective of investments in transit infrastructure is automobiles at the pump are also very low and sub- to move economic activity to suburban areas and sidized by the government. The cost per liter of gas to spur new growth in these areas. An example of is about 1.10 pounds (approximately $0.19/liter or this strategy to support suburbanization is 6th of $0.72 per U.S. gallon), while the real cost is about October City, a rapidly growing suburban city and four times that amount. Subsidies of transit fares commercial area on the western side of Cairo. How- and fuel are set to help achieve societal goals by ever, the rapid pace of suburban development has the national government, facilitating affordable trans- made it difficult for transit and transport invest- portation for Egyptian citizens and thereby improv- ments in infrastructure to meet demand, and author- ing access to employment and spurring economic ities are struggling to keep pace. Metro Line 4 will opportunity and growth. serve 6th of October City. The plan to move people out of the urban core and increase suburban growth Johannesburg is working, and plans for future metro lines do align with these plans. Johannesburg's history of apartheid played a large Another example is New Cairo, which is located role in how the city developed--it resulted in a dis- approximately 45 kilometers to the east of Cairo. jointed city. As a result of apartheid spatial planning, 15

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industrial areas were placed between the business to negotiate with many of the minibus taxi associa- and financial districts located in the center of the city tions regarding the introduction of Rea Vaya. Start- and the outer residential areas or townships. Mixed ing in the mid 2000s, Johannesburg sought to achieve uses were not promoted, which had a significant im- support and buy-in from minibus taxi operators in pact on transport costs and the quality of life for the the development of Rea Vaya. The minibus taxi residents. This spatial planning resulted in the work- industry was fractured and disorganized, resulting force living on the outskirts of the city without suffi- in slow negotiations and progress. As negotiations cient transportation to jobs located in the city. proceeded, Johannesburg's discussions focused on This access issue has been exacerbated since the the larger operators in Johannesburg, leaving many job market has spurred suburban office centers north operators out of the negotiations. Many minibus taxi of the city, while many of the townships are located operators opposed the Rea Vaya as it was seen as a to the south and west. As a result, travel times have publicly funded service competing with traditional increased and frequently require a trip into the CBD minibus taxi markets and threatening their livelihoods. for a transfer. New development has moved from the Overcoming legal challenges and this general indus- city center to the outer areas, particularly with busi- try opposition, Johannesburg was able eventually to nesses previously located in the CBD moving to the reach a negotiated agreement with the largest of the north side of the city. Traditionally, travel occurred minibus taxi operators, who formed an operating between the outer residential areas to the city center; company that has taken on the management of the this new development is changing travel patterns and BRT, employing former minibus taxi drivers as em- how future phases of public transport are being devel- ployees of the operating company. oped. Consideration is now being given to travel pat- As a result of this transition from minibus taxi terns that may not require a trip to the city center. operations to Rea Vaya operations, 585 minibus taxis Soweto (i.e., South West Township) is the largest were removed from the roads when Phase 1A opened. township in Johannesburg and is home to approxi- These minibus taxi operators sold their old mini- mately 40% of Johannesburg's residents. Developed buses, raised shareholder equity, and migrated from as a result of apartheid, Soweto is a residential area minibus taxi operators to BRT bus operators under the that lacks employment areas within its boundaries, auspices of the new operating company, with city sup- which means that almost all of Soweto's residents port. This transition helped achieve the goals of both must commute to other parts of the city for employ- improved mobility for citizens through the Rea ment. Soweto has also traditionally been underserved Vaya system improvements and BEE through the by public transportation, and residents have had to transition from individual minibus taxi operators to rely heavily on minibus taxis as their primary means participation in the new operating company. Chal- of transportation. When the city decided to bring lenges do remain, however: 10 minibus taxi operat- metrobus service to Soweto in 2005, there was much ing associations are involved in the current owner- resistance--summed up as "Get your metro buses ship group of the Rea Vaya operating company, but out of Soweto or else." However, once the minibus there are 90 others that are not involved in the proj- operators had participated in the study mission to ect. Further economic impacts of Rea Vaya have Guayaquil and Bogot, where they talked to peer been documented in terms of employment impacts companies that had successfully transitioned from for Phase 1A construction and operations, which minibus to BRT, the resistance lessened somewhat. generated about 3,500 temporary jobs during con- As a result of the study mission, city leaders also struction and 800 permanent jobs during operations. decided to scale the planned metrobus system up Johannesburg, which does not now have adequate to a full BRT system as they recognized that a BRT densities to support public transport, has developed a system would have beneficial ripple effects in the land use planning strategy to increase densities within broader areas of land use and development, air qual- 1 kilometer of existing rail lines, Gautrain service, ity, community development, and BEE. In Novem- and the Rea Vaya BRT. To support this goal, the city ber 2006, the city decided to build 122 kilometers of is making investments in infrastructure and develop- BRT north from Soweto. ment a priority in those areas that are well served by Another focus in Johannesburg is better regu- transit. Innercity regeneration is a goal of these land lation of the minibus taxi industry. One key step in use strategies, as is TOD. There has been some suc- this direction is the efforts made by Johannesburg cess in TOD and implementation of these land use 16