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strategies, more on the north side of town than on By bringing primarily African-owned minibus the south. All of these efforts have as their basis taxi operators in to operate their BRT services, both what have been identified as the key values of pub- Cape Town and Johannesburg are striving to improve lic transportation--to build a better quality of life, to economic opportunities for the poor, in support of build the economy, and to build society. national and local policy goals supporting broad- based BEE, which is recognized as an important driver of economic growth and job creation (i.e., the Cape Town Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act The layout of Cape Town includes a CBD in the of 2003). By designating BRT corridors that will con- center of the city, which is surrounded by an indus- nect spatially and racially segregated communities to trial district. Residential areas are found on the out- centers of economic activity and commerce, the pol- skirts of the city, with higher-income residential hous- icy goals of providing inexpensive, reliable public ing located closer to the city center and lower-income transport services to the poor are also achieved, help- residential areas typically located farthest from the ing to improve economic opportunity. city center. This layout presents a transportation chal- lenge for the city as it looks to find sustainable ways LESSONS LEARNED to provide public transport between these residential areas and the employment center. The following are the lessons learned from the One such lower-income area is the city of Atlantis, ITSP Fall 2010 mission: which is located approximately 40 kilometers from Corridor development is a fundamental ele- Cape Town. At the time Atlantis was created, the gov- ment of the vision for each city: The Marmaray ernment offered subsidies and incentives to encour- tunnel under the Bosphorus will achieve a 150-year- age manufacturing and industrial companies to set up old goal for Istanbul to complete a rail corridor operations in Atlantis and, thus, to create local jobs connecting the European and Asian sides of the for the residents. When the government subsidies city. Cairo's Transportation Master Plan 2022 ended, however, many of these companies left, caus- (CREATS) calls for intensified residential and com- ing unemployment rates to rise to 60%. Keeping with mercial land uses along public transport corridors the government's mobility strategy, there are plans to and within urbanized area boundaries. Johannesburg's expand the public transportation system and connect Integrated Development Plan (2010/2011) calls for Atlantis to Cape Town, thereby improving residents' initiating and implementing corridor development. access to education and employment opportunities in The desired urban form for the city is delineated by Cape Town. two development corridors with focused infrastruc- South Africa's Department of Transportation ture to support development and a series of goals is supporting BRT investments in multiple cities and objectives for each corridor. Cape Town's city throughout the country and is moving away from strategy for public transport is set out in the policies its primary investment strategy, which had been of its Integrated Transport Plan (20062011), which oriented largely toward roads. This national strategy includes giving priority to public transport over in support of BRT development rather than rail devel- private transport, directing investment in infra- opment is based, in part, on the fact that the capital structure, encouraging investment and growth in investment required for BRT construction is sub- sustainable mobility corridors, and stimulating stantially lower (on a per-kilometer basis) than is development on mobility corridors. that for rail. The national government subsidizes rail Major transit investments in each city include and publicly operated bus services provided in Cape important roles for public-private partnerships: Town in the amount of about 1 billion rand (approx- IU was established as a subsidiary of the Municipal- imately $145 million) annually. A key intent of the ity of Istanbul to operate and maintain the railway BRT investment strategy is to make publicly oper- system and undertake capital projects, the most ated transit services more efficient, reducing the prominent of which is the $3.2 billion Marmaray need for subsidies. The national strategy is to pro- tunnel project. Similarly Cairo Metro, the privatized vide more public transportation services nationwide, Egyptian Company for Metro, was created for oper- bringing better regulation and more structure than ation and maintenance, while the assets belong to the presently exists. Egyptian National Railway. In Johannesburg and 17