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economic growth. Barriers to continued economic is contracted to Istanbul Ulas im (IU), which oper- growth and livable communities include over- ates and maintains the metro, tram, and train system population, intense traffic congestion, and urban and is responsible for covering the operating costs, sprawl. In Istanbul and Cairo, transit investments but not the cost of building and funding the infra- are designed to reduce travel time and support self- structure itself. The rolling stock, tunnels, and other contained communities on the urban fringe, thereby capital infrastructure are owned by IETT. allowing each city to lower the density in the central IETT carries 3 million passengers per day on city and to provide a viable regional transit network. 4,900 buses operating on 515 routes. Its services include a metrobus and a BRT system, a light-rail/ subway system, a funicular/tramway system, and an OVERVIEW OF PUBLIC historic trolley on Istiklar Street. Its fare box recov- TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ery on the rail system is 130% and 70% on the bus Istanbul system. IETT is funded exclusively with munici- pal funds--no assistance is provided by the central Istanbul is unique: it covers 2,063 square miles government. and is situated on two continents--Asia and Europe IETT recently developed a very successful and (see Figure 1). With a population of 12.9 million effective BRT system by establishing dedicated bus people, it is the largest city in Europe. Its residents lanes in the center of numerous urban highways. are predominantly young, social, and active. It faces The decision to select this mode and alignment was the problems of overpopulation in the core of the city based on the ease of construction and the desire to and extreme overcrowding in the central business minimize the disruption to existing traffic. Within district (CBD). Istanbul Elektrik Tramvay ve Tnel 2 years of opening, the BRT system reached its max- (IETT) is responsible for public transport services in imum capacity, and IETT officials are now contem- the city. plating putting some of the BRT system into tunnels In Turkey, public transport services are the re- to integrate it with light rail. sponsibility of the municipalities. Istanbul's juris- The extensive public transportation system is one diction is quite large, spreading across both sides of the keys to the economic vitality and livability of of the Bosphorus. With a staff of 9,300 people, IETT Istanbul. The city's burgeoning population has, how- is the primary public transport entity in the region, ever, resulted in congestion and sprawl. The city has operating some services and contracting out others. developed a plan to shift some of the population away The minibus sector is regulated by IETT, and the bus from the city center to new, self-contained communi- service is operated by IETT. Most of the rail service ties that will provide both housing and employment and, thus, generate fewer trips. IETT estimates that there are 22 million trips made per day in Istanbul (including walking trips), of which IETT carries 3.2 million trips on its directly operated services. IU estimates that 9.5% of commuters use rail in Istanbul, and the number of trips in 2010 is expected to top 265 million--more than double the number of trips (107 million) carried in 2000. The metro system, with 72 km of track, serves as the backbone of the transit system in Istanbul. By allowing metro service to continue from one side of the Bosphorus to the other, the Marmaray tunnel project will address congestion on the two existing highway bridges that cross the strait and will provide another transportation option for people traveling between the European and Asian sides of the city. When completed, the Marmaray tunnel project will Figure 1 Istanbul is situated along both sides of the increase the length of the metro by 77 kilometers. Bosphorus, which separates the continents of Europe The city's BRT system operates in exclusive and Asia. bus lanes that primarily are located in the median 3

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of freeways. Total travel time from end to end on the ECM was formed in 1987 to build and operate BRT line is 63 minutes. Riders pay before boarding, the city's two subway lines. Cairo is the only city and the one-way fare is 1.65 Turkish lira ($1.04). in Africa with a subway system. In 1988, the sys- There are 33 stops, and headways are 15 seconds dur- tem, which at that time had only a single line, carried ing peak periods and 45 seconds off peak, although 91 million passengers per year; since then, ridership off-peak schedules are adjusted based on demand on the Metro has grown 11% each year. and special events. ECM's first subway line--referred to as "Line 1" In addition to the publicly operated transit sys- --uses 54 nine-car trains to make 522 trips per day, tems in Istanbul, there are also privately operated carrying 467 million passengers per year. Line 2, systems that help to reduce the amount of roadway which was added in 1994, uses 35 eight-car trains congestion in the city. Minibuses play a large role to make 622 trips per day, carrying approximately in providing transit service to the outlying areas of 305 million passengers per year. Line 2 is fully ac- Istanbul. Known as "dolmuses," these buses some- cessible to persons with disabilities, and its more times run on the same routes served by the city buses, modern signal and train control equipment means but they also serve areas with smaller populations as it can also accommodate shorter headways over its well as historic areas that are not easily served by tra- 21 kilometers. Line 1 is currently being upgraded for ditional transit. There are more than 6,000 minibuses wheelchair accessibility. in service within Istanbul. Private shuttles are another ECM's current annual operating budget is ap- option: carrying six to eight persons in each vehicle proximately 300 million Egyptian pounds, but it is and licensed by the government, the shuttles are used expected to grow to approximately 6 billion Egypt- to transport people to and from work. By carrying ian pounds over the next 5 years. The increased bud- multiple people in one vehicle, these private shuttles get will enable the agency to focus on four major initiatives: are helping to achieve the municipality's goals of re- ducing roadway congestion and travel times. 1. Enhancing operational capacity, 2. Improving availability and reliability, 3. Upgrading assets, and Cairo 4. Expanding the metro network to more areas Located on the banks of the Nile River, Cairo of the greater Cairo region. is a bustling city of 17 million people. It is Egypt's CTA is Cairo's primary public bus operator and capital city, and it the most populous city in Africa. also operates microbuses, ferries, metro trains, and Cairo's efforts to use transit in the economic devel- trams (see Figure 2). These services, some of which opment context are aimed at keeping up with the are privately operated but supervised by CTA, carry crushing travel demands of this densely populated 83% of the daily trips in Cairo. The CTA is an eco- city. The Egyptian Company for Metro (ECM) and the Cairo Transportation Authority (CTA) carry a combined 1.7 billion riders per year, yet the streets of downtown Cairo are still heavily congested. Approximately two-thirds of Egypt's gross domestic product (GDP) is attributable to the Cairo metropolitan area. The annual growth rate of the Egyptian economy increased from 3.2% in 2003 to 8.8% in 2008. Nonetheless, the intense congestion resulting from high numbers of cars and people in the central city presents a barrier to continued eco- nomic growth and investment. The congestion is a by-product of the growth in population and increas- ing levels of car ownership, as well as a lack of suf- ficient off-street parking and sufficient capacity on the public transport system. A pedestrian environ- ment is nearly nonexistent in the city, and traffic regulations appear to be little enforced. Figure 2 Cairo microbus transfer station. 4

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nomic authority of Cairo's city government and employs 40,000 persons. It serves five primary cities in the Cairo metropolitan area: Cairo, Helwan, Giza, 6th of October, and Kalubia. Within these areas, CTA operates 20 bus garages, 5 workshops, and 883 routes. CTA officials recognize that transportation is a crucial component of the city's development plans and the backbone of social life. The Egyptian gov- ernment is undertaking efforts to modernize all of the country's infrastructure--including transportation-- and is advocating an integrated system of transport. Fares are subsidized by the government. The cost to ride a CTA bus is 1 Egyptian pound, but the actual cost per rider is 2.5 Egyptian pounds. Veterans and passengers with disabilities (and their escorts) ride at Figure 3 CTA has already received 500 of the new no cost; students qualify for a reduced fare. The total Mercedes buses. subsidy provided to CTA in 2010 was 690 million Egyptian pounds. CTA has 3,000 buses in its fleet, which carry of CNG--approximately 45 piasters ($0.08) per cubic 3.5 million passengers per day. Another 6.5 mil- meter. However, the extreme hot weather in Cairo has lion passengers are carried each day on unregulated made it difficult to fill the buses' tanks to the required minibuses. Management at both CTA and ECM indi- 300 bar (approximately 4,300 psi) and this has been cated that it is likely that a new governing authority in further complicated by the need to refuel mid-day Cairo will regulate the minibuses. In addition, CTA after the first 8-hour shift. has service contracts with several entities such as the More recently, the U.S. Agency for International Greater Cairo Bus Company (an affiliate of CTA); Development provided a grant to CTA for the acqui- school bus companies; and tour bus companies. sition of 50 new CNG buses. The chassis for those CTA is in the process of replacing many of its buses were built in the United States with a Cum- buses, 55% of which are more than 20 years old; the mings CNG engine and then shipped to Egypt, where rest are less than 6 years old. The company's goal is the rest of the vehicle bodies were assembled locally. to have a fleet in which no bus is more than 20 years CTA is also experimenting with small hybrid-electric old. The first 500 replacement buses have already buses that use solar panels for start-up. These buses been delivered by Mercedes, which won the bid to cost three times what a standard bus costs. CTA is also replace the fleet. Six hundred additional new buses considering adding double-decker air-conditioned will arrive in increments over the next 2 years (see buses; a system of modern trams (streetcars); mono- Figure 3). The new buses cost approximately rail; a BRT system with dedicated lanes; and a GPS- 650,000 Egyptian pounds each, and CTA plans to tracking system for the entire fleet. fund the purchase of the new buses through the sale At full build-out, the fleet will eventually number of various surplus assets, primarily land and unused 3,000, and all buses will meet Euro 4 or 5 emissions transit stations. The new buses will all be a bright standards. CTA is also making plans for uniform tick- red, making it easy for riders to distinguish between eting and electronic payment throughout its system. the new and old buses. CTA's goal is to provide a CTA operates a ferry system and a light-rail tran- comfortable and attractive means of public trans- sit (LRT) line called the "Heliopolis LRT." The ferry portation, which will attract riders from automobiles system carries 6,000 people per day. CTA staff indi- and help to solve the city's traffic problems. cated that the ferries are old (more than 25 years) and To address its worsening air quality, Cairo has that there is a plan to engage the private sector in order experimented with low-emission buses, with mixed to increase service to 60,000 trips per day as part of results. In 1996, the Italian government donated six an effort to use the river to help lessen pressure on the compressed natural gas (CNG) buses for use in Cairo. downtown transportation network. CNG vehicles are attractive, not only because of the The Heliopolis LRT is a historic system con- low emissions, but also because of the very low price structed in the early part of the 20th century and 5

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currently has a fleet of 30 vehicles, which provide the difficulty in regulating the informal operators 100,000 trips per day. CTA is in the process of upgrad- with generally poor safety and maintenance records. ing the LRT rolling stock. In addition, there is an oversupply of services, cre- The institutional framework in Cairo appears ating conflicts between operators competing for to be in transition. In 2003, ECM transitioned to passengers. The movement of industry into political an independent board that reports to the Egyptian activity at the municipal, provincial, and national National Railways (ENR). ECM is responsible for levels has also led to complications. operating and maintaining the system. Under the The Johannesburg Transportation Department is transition plan, employees of ECM have been bor- responsible for the development of policy, strategy, rowed from ENR until 2013. Staff positions, required and programs for public transport, transport infra- qualifications, and training programs are now being structure, and transport safety. The department was defined. The ECM board members are now selected responsible for developing and implementing ser- by the ministry of transport rather than by ENR. vices to transport the enormous crowds of spectators The tunnels and track for the existing lines are still drawn to the city for the 2009 International Federa- owned by ENR. Tunnels and trackway for the new tion of Association Football (FIFA) Confederations metro lines are being designed and constructed by Cup and 2010 FIFA World Cup. the National Authority for Tunnels (NTA), which Metrorail was formed under the banner of the will also own the assets. ECM's stated vision is "to South African Rail Commuter Corporation. This be the backbone of a safe, efficient, and exceptional consolidation process and the development of a transportation network in greater Cairo and the pre- National Commuter Rail Plan have streamlined the ferred mode for residents and visitors." institutional arrangements for commuter rail and pro- vide the basis for decisions on recapitalizing the rail fleet. Ridership on commuter rail, measured as pas- Johannesburg senger trips per year, has been falling since the 1980s. Johannesburg is a relatively new major city, hav- This decline accelerated with the deregulation of ing been established in 1886 with the discovery of taxi transport in 1989 and with the prolonged state of gold; it is the economic heartland of South Africa. political protests and violence that ultimately led to Today the city encompasses 1,645 square kilometers the repeal of the apartheid laws in 1990 and to a new (1,022 square miles) and has an official population constitution in 1993. of 3.9 million, but planners estimate that the actual The Metropolitan Bus Service (Metrobus) is population is about 5 million. owned solely by the city. The company operates about Johannesburg residents are young (65% are 532 buses on 80 scheduled routes and 130 school younger than 35), and unemployment is high. Of routes, transporting 90,000 passengers per day. Sub- 3.5 million daily person trips, 47% are by public sidies for bus services began under apartheid to en- transport, including 72% by minibus taxi, 14% by sure the provision of transportation that would bring rail, and 9% by bus. Two-thirds of the residents of workers from the outlying segregated townships to this low-density city do not have access to cars. Johannesburg's industrial and commercial centers. Private minibus companies continue to provide The subsidies peaked in the 1990s, when the federal the largest portion of trips in the city. The minibus government was unable to meet the demands for sub- industry grew in response to the apartheid govern- sidies. Competitive tendering to contract out the bus ment's policies, which failed to provide for the mobil- routes has replaced the former subsidy system; to keep ity needs of its workforce: the workforce was forced transport affordable, however, the government makes to live in segregated communities located far from up the difference between the cost of the tendered ser- employment and business centers, with inadequate vice and the fare revenue. public transportation services. Independent, private minibus companies thus sprang up to fill the demand. Cape Town The minibus operators play a vital role in the city's transportation system, providing a means for residents Cape Town is one of the oldest cities in South of the townships to commute to employment centers. Africa, dating back to the 1600s, when it was a supply The minibus industry has, however, had its own set point for European ships rounding the Cape of Good of challenges; the most pressing challenge has been Hope en route to India and Asia. The Mediterranean 6

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climate and dramatically beautiful location on the southern tip of the African continent make Cape Town a popular tourist destination for Africans and Europeans. Cape Town is South Africa's biggest magnet for the information technology industry and other soft, clean industries such as banking and insurance. Cape Town has a population of 3.5 million peo- ple over 948 square miles, making it the least dense of the host cities. The 2.5% annual population growth rate, in conjunction with a high level of unemploy- ment, has focused the city on ensuring appropriate economic growth. Cape Town boasts the best rail transportation in South Africa and has a well-developed transporta- tion network of roads, but much of this network was established when the CBD was the focal point, which resulted in a radially oriented network (see Figure 4). The activity base has spread over the years, but this has not been matched by the development of a more grid-like system that would facilitate diverse travel patterns. The public transport system in Cape Town cur- rently consists of an existing bus service, minibus services, metrorail, and limited BRT service known as "MyCiTi." (In November 2010, MyCiTi was only operating express service between Civic Center Sta- tion and Cape Town International Airport Station.) According to the national household travel survey, Figure 4 Cape Town railway network from Integrated 47.8% of trips are made by public transport in Cape Transport Plan. Town, 44.6% are made by private vehicles, and 7.7% are made using nonmotorized forms of transportation. key strategy for mitigating congestion, shaping metro- The public transport network is estimated to carry politan growth, and stimulating economic investment 1.1 million passenger trips daily, with 53% traveling in neighborhoods adjacent to IRT stations. by rail, 29% on minibuses, and 18% on scheduled Bus service is contracted out, but the facilities are bus services. owned and managed by the city. Daily ridership totals No capital investment in the Cape Town's com- 270,000 on 1,530 routes. Service is subsidized by the muter rail network has occurred in 40 years, and national government. A dial-a-ride service utilizes the network is operating considerably below its tech- 30 accessible vehicles to provide 400 scheduled trips nical capacity due to a shortage of rolling stock. each day to 5,000 registered users who have spe- Although the rail network is capable of carrying more cial needs. than 100 train sets, the city of Cape Town is currently An estimated 10,000 privately operated 15-seat served by 83 train sets. Future investment in the rail minibus vehicles are in operation under single or system will be focused on three priority corridors that multiple vehicle operators. There are 565 routes have been defined in the Integrated Transport Plan. operated all day, providing service to 55,998 trips The Cape Town integrated rapid transit (IRT) and 332,407 daily passengers, of which 120,922 are system is an initiative to transform public-sector carried during the peak period. The services are transport. The term "integrated," rather than the more unscheduled. Frequencies are between 1 and 2 min- typical "bus," was adopted for this system to empha- utes during the peak. size the system's integration with all other forms of Metered taxis are chiefly sedans; riders are transportation in the city. The IRT system serves as the charged a fixed fare based on distance traveled. On 7