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a typical day, 453 vehicles owned by 189 operators carry about 4,000 passengers. TRANSIT SYSTEMS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Istanbul In the divided city of Istanbul, 73% of employ- ment is located on the European side, but only 65% of the population lives there. This results in more than 1.1 million daily trips over the Bosphorus as workers commute between the two continents, resulting in sig- nificant congestion on the two bridges that span the strait. As the population of Istanbul increases and as residential development expands on the Asian side of the city, the number of daily trips is expected to grow to 1.6 million by 2015. Reducing this conges- tion, decreasing the travel time for residents, and providing the population with additional transporta- tion alternatives are the main goals of planned pub- lic transport projects. To accommodate the demand for trips between the continents without exacerbating the burden on the road system, Istanbul is undertaking an ambitious rail development program--the Marmaray project. The 76.6-km commuter rail project will include 19.6 km of at-grade rail on the European side, 43.4 km of sur- Figure 5 Marmaray tunnel portal. face rail on the Asian side, 12.2 km of bored tunnels, and--the most technically demanding part of the project--a 1.4-km immersed tube twin tunnel beneath fish migration seasons: the spring migration from the Bosphorus (see Figure 5). The new line will in- March 15 through June 15 and the autumn migration clude 40 stations and 7 transfer points to intercity from September 5 through November 15. By sus- trains and will be able to carry up to 75,000 passen- pending work during these key periods, the distur- gers per direction per hour. Funded by the national bance to the fish is minimized. government of Turkey, the $4 billion project will The project also has experienced numerous delays reduce congestion and traffic impacts on the city, to accommodate archeological excavations. The improve air quality, and decrease travel time for the project has uncovered 35 shipwrecks dating from millions who cross the Bosphorus each day. Perhaps A.D. 6001,000, a tunnel dating back to A.D. 300, most important, the tunnel will provide the first rail and skeletons dating back to 6,500 B.C. (making them connection--for both passenger and freight trains-- 8,500 years old). Excavation and removal of sub- between Europe and Asia. merged archeological finds is extraordinarily time- The project sponsors have tolerated lengthy delays consuming as workers cannot operate at submarine in the construction of the project to ensure the pro- depths for more than 20 minutes per day without tection of Istanbul's natural and historical resources. absorbing toxic levels of nitrogen in their blood- This illustrates a strong commitment on the part of stream. Furthermore, there are only eight experts in the federal and municipal governments to preserv- the world who specialize in the recovery of submerged ing assets valuable to the culture and economy of the ancient shipwrecks. The country's commitment to city. For example, out of concern about how chang- careful treatment of these finds has cost the proj- ing levels of water turbidity and submarine noise ect $35 million for expenses related to archeolog- might disrupt the migrating fish, in-channel work on ical excavation and 4.5 years of delay at a cost of the project is suspended every year during the two $600 million. 8

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The tunnel will cross the Bosphorus between the airport, is currently under construction and is Sarayburnu and skdar, two points that have long scheduled to open in October 2011. When fully built been proposed as the best location for a tunnel. In out in 2022, the Cairo metro system will include six addition to the delays imposed by fish migrations subway lines and will provide service throughout and archeological finds, the project faces daunting the greater Cairo region. technological challenges. When complete, it will The city's extensive bus, minibus, and microbus be the deepest immersed tunnel in the world at its (i.e., shared taxis) system provides service through- maximum depth of 58 meters. (The current holder out Cairo and its suburbs and represents 83% of all of that title is the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid public transportation trips. In addition, there are more Transit tunnel in San Francisco, which is at a depth than 1,180 microbuses operated in the Cairo region of 46 meters.) The tunnel is being constructed in by the private sector. Because government officials 135-meter, 19,000-ton segments in a nearby dry recognize the important gap that these microbuses dock and is tested for watertightness before being fill, they are currently working on a plan to organize placed on the floor of the strait. The placement of and regulate the microbuses to make them a more for- the segments occurs in waters with stratified cur- mal and integrated part of the government system. rents up to 5 knots (5.75 mph) and with extensive There are also plans to expand the transportation shipping traffic. The tunnel is also being built in the network in the Cairo region by constructing an addi- world's most active earthquake zone, which has tion to the light-rail system. The project will provide experienced hundreds of 1.0+ earthquakes in the last an additional 40 kilometers of light-rail transit in the 10 years and dozens of earthquakes measuring 5.0 Cairo region and includes the establishment of two or higher in the last 500 years. The project is designed new transit lines that will provide service between to withstand a 7.5-magnitude earthquake with no risk Cairo and New Cairo. to life and minimal risk of losing its functionality, A railroad system also provides transportation structural integrity, or watertightness. service in Cairo and connects Cairo to Luxor, Alexan- dria, and other cities in Egypt. While the railroad is Cairo used by some to commute to and from work, it is tra- ditionally used for longer trips between the major Transportation in the greater Cairo region is pro- cities of Egypt. vided through public and private transportation sys- The mode split in Cairo indicates that over half tems. A total of 22 million passenger trips are made of all trips are by private shared taxis, or microbuses, in the region each day, and almost 10 million of those which carry some 6.1 million people per day. Approx- trips occur on public transportation. In Cairo, the city imately 19% of trips, or 2.3 million passengers, are center is the primary area where residents and visitors carried by metro trains; 18%, or 2.1 million riders, by come to work and shop, and it also serves as the main CTA buses; 5% by the Greater Cairo Bus Company; transportation hub with connections to all modes of and 6% in private cars. The private shared taxis that transportation. Because the majority of the jobs in carry such a large share of the daily trips are consid- Cairo are located in or near the city center, most trans- ered to be unsafe, and they are entirely unregulated. portation service is focused on connecting people The government is planning to create a new entity from the outer areas to the CBD. that will oversee all transportation services in Cairo, While the existing public transportation network with the aim of improving safety and reliability of provides some service to the outer districts, the gov- all modes. ernment has a number of plans to expand the sys- tem to better serve these growing areas. The Cairo Metro's two existing subway lines provide service Johannesburg between the city center and several outer urban areas Recent investments in public transport are being including Helwan, New El Marq, and El Mounib. used to help break down barriers between neighbor- Additional connections are provided to Shubra, a hoods and to provide residents with improved access district within Cairo located on the north side of to jobs and education. One of the government's goals the city, which has a population of more than 5 mil- is to see that public transport is being provided equally lion people. A third line, which will provide service throughout the city. Focus is also being placed on between Imbaba to the northeast, the city center, and leveraging investment in public transport to increase 9

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densification and more efficient urban forms, which lenges was introducing a robust transit system to will help to reduce transport costs for residents and to serve areas "claimed" by private taxi companies reduce the city's cost of transportation infrastructure. that had long provided the only service to those In the past 10 years, Johannesburg has seen the areas and had developed a profitable business pro- construction and successful initial operation of two viding the service. Naturally, the minibus taxi com- new transit systems--Rea Vaya (which means "we panies fiercely opposed the idea of a publicly sub- are going") and Gautrain. Rea Vaya is a BRT system sidized system that would put them out of business that runs primarily in dedicated lanes to fixed raised or, at least, narrow their profit margins. However, station platforms. At completion, Phase 1 of the Rea the mayor and City Council of Johannesburg were Vaya network will include 122 kilometers of cover- convinced that achievement of their transport man- age, 150 stations, and 805 buses capable of carrying date required a comprehensive public system whose 434,000 passengers per day. The first segment com- reliability and safety could be ensured and whose pleted, called "Phase 1A," extends from Thokoza Park routes could serve not only the locals, but inter- in Soweto to Ellis Park in downtown Johannesburg. national visitors as well. With the FIFA World Cup This line is 30 kilometers long, includes 30 stations, coming to Johannesburg in 2010, officials knew and uses 143 buses. Forty-one of these buses are artic- this system had to be built quickly. ulated, carry 56 seated passengers, and are designed In 2006, the mayor of Johannesburg visited sev- to carry passengers between designated stations with eral transit systems in South America and quickly raised boarding platforms. The other 102 buses, became convinced that a dedicated-lane BRT sys- called "complementary," are nonarticulated; carry tem could be effective in Johannesburg and could 40 seated passengers; and provide for level boarding be implemented quickly. In November 2006, a at regular curbside stops (doors on the left side of 122-kilometer BRT system was approved in the bus) and high boarding at the Rea Vaya stations, city's Strategic Public Transportation Network, where the doors open on the right side of the bus. including the initial route to Soweto. In the year This arrangement enables these complementary buses that followed, the city was involved in extensive and to operate along the dedicated trunk line and then to difficult negotiations with the taxi operators, who branch out into neighboring areas to provide feeder were fearful that the BRT would disrupt their liveli- service. A bus-operating company operates the sys- hood. The negotiations were successful for three key tem from 4:50 A.M. to 10:30 P.M. on weekdays and reasons: (1) the mayor agreed, at the taxi operators' from 5:00 A.M. to 7:30 P.M. on weekends. The cost request, to pay for a technical advisor who would of this initial trunk line (i.e., Phase 1A) was 2.5 bil- work with the taxi operators; (2) the mayor invited lion rand ($360 million). taxi operators to participate in study tours to South The next phase will add 43.5 kilometers of American systems so that they could meet with mini- trunk line and 43 new stations served by 300 buses, bus operators in those communities to learn about of which 100 will be articulated and 200 will be their experiences with transitioning to a BRT system; nonarticulated. This phase will create a new bus- and (3) the mayor directed that negotiations be con- operating company and will cost approximately ducted by an independent organization, thereby plac- 3.5 billion rand ($500 million) to complete. Offi- ing the taxi operators and the city on equal footing. cials expect this phase to be completed in 2012. The mayor's consistent inclusion of the taxi opera- The business structure for operating the Rea Vaya tors in the process and his genuine responsiveness to system differs from the typical public transit model in their concerns built credibility in a very short time. which a public agency owns and operates the system. After lengthy negotiations, the mayor was able to Instead, the city of Johannesburg owns all of the sys- convince a small group of the operators that their tem assets, except the buses. This includes the stations, careers would be more prestigious as owners of a bus- exclusive right-of-way, fare equipment, and main- operating company and that their drivers could earn tenance depots. The ticketing, cash collection, sta- more and have better advancement opportunities as tion management, and bus ownership, operations, and highly trained bus operators than as taxi drivers. maintenance are all contracted to private companies. Unfortunately, some political pressures and a law- The key to Rea Vaya's success has been the for- suit prevented the Rea Vaya system from opening in mation of bus-operating companies to operate the time for the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup, but the system. One of Johannesburg's most vexing chal- city ultimately prevailed in the legal action and com- 10

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pleted the system in time for the 2010 FIFA World city's growth management strategy, and its potential Cup. One of FIFA's most stringent requirements for accelerating densification and transformation of was that the main stadium at Soccer City be capable the city's urban form. Thus, the Rea Vaya system is of clearing the area of crowds within 2 hours after the clearly seen by Johannesburg officials as having a end of a game. Without a high-capacity transit system close tie to, and dramatic impact on, the city's eco- in place, the spectators in the stadium's 94,700 seats nomic development efforts, as well as being an effec- had little chance of clearing within the allotted time. tive tool for reducing poverty. By providing a low- The Rea Vaya system, however, was up to the task-- cost and reliable transportation option, it meets the easily able to clear the area in less than 2 hours. mayor's desire to ensure that no one spends more While the Rea Vaya system will have long-term than 10% of his or her income on transportation economic development benefits during its many years needs, and, with time, it will provide the opportunity of operation, the construction of the system was a sub- for Johannesburg residents to reverse the spatial dis- stantial economic driver in and of itself. The city of persal of communities through the development of Johannesburg was able to secure financing for the higher-density neighborhoods surrounding the tran- project through the Export Credit Agency, an inter- sit stations. One official was quite direct about the national bank designed to promote exports in a home two primary reasons for building Rea Vaya: to sat- country. The bid for producing the buses was won isfy the mobility demands of the World Cup and to by Sweden's Scania SA (an affiliate of Saab). With improve social equity by delivering good transit ser- the aim of completing the order in time for the 2009 vice to underserved communities. The Rea Vaya sys- FIFA Confederations Cup (the original deadline for tem has been driven by a strong, principled mayor the system), Scania built the chassis in Sweden then who recognized that effective, inexpensive trans- airlifted them to Brazil for completion. Scania agreed portation can be a wealth-building tool for the com- to sell the buses to a "yet-to-be-named bus-operating munity's poorest residents. City officials noted that company," as the taxi negotiations had not been individual economic empowerment was a deliberate completed at the time of the order; agreed to accept aim of the Rea Vaya project, while broader economic the buses themselves as collateral for the loan; and development benefits were unintentional. carried the financing for 12 years instead of the Johannesburg officials are certainly not pausing usual 5 years. to celebrate the success of the first Rea Vaya line. While the deal required a complex financing They point to a long list of crucial next steps includ- structure, in which the bus supplier bore signifi- ing integration of ticketing, transfers, and multimodal cant risk, it provided a massive infusion of funds facilities; station integration with surrounding land and technical skills into the Johannesburg econ- uses and local economic development; congestion omy. Some community members expressed con- reduction and continued behavioral changes regard- cern about importing buses from another country, ing transportation choice; intensification of develop- but Johannesburg officials knew South Africa did ment in Rea Vaya corridors; and identification of sus- not have the domestic capacity--either in skills or tainable revenue sources for public transportation. manufacturing capacity--to complete the order on The Gautrain project was launched by the Gaut- time. Nevertheless, Johannesburg officials do intend eng provincial government in 1997 to curb urban to enable some level of local production for the next sprawl, relieve traffic congestion, and serve business phase. The city lacks the ability and mandate to stim- travelers. It was seen from the outset as an economic ulate local manufacturing capacity, but hopes that development tool. The project also aimed to relieve its initiative on the Rea Vaya project will motivate traffic congestion along the highway between Johan- the national government to step into this role. Both nesburg and Pretoria, which carries 300,000 cars per the complexity of the financing and the speed of day. Other goals for the project include urban renewal construction and completion--roughly 2.5 years along its route and creating a transit facility that is from beginning of planning to revenue service-- economically and environmentally sustainable. were remarkable. Construction of the project sent 4.5 million rand Johannesburg's sequencing of future phases of to black-owned business entities, furthering the goal the project will be based on a variety of factors includ- of black economic empowerment (BEE). The proj- ing the importance of a corridor for city economic ect spent approximately 3.2 million rand on South growth and development, the corridor's place in the African materials, plants, and equipment. 11

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Three lines are planned. The first, from the air- port to Sandton, opened in June 2010 and carried its millionth passenger in September 2010, 3 months earlier than expected. The second line will be from Hatfield to Park, and the third will be from Sandton to Rhodesfield. The project will include 24 trains, with 4 coaches in each set, traveling at 160 km/h (100 mph) on standard gauge-rail (see Figure 6). Gautrain planners viewed the project as a cata- lyst for transit-oriented land development and a tool for accomplishing city goals for increasing overall development densities, particularly around transit stations (see Figure 7). Officials report that the pri- vate development community has responded eagerly with a great deal of interest in property around the Gautrain stations. Cities have changed their zoning Figure 7 Gautrain Station at the airport. to encourage this kind of development, and the mar- ket has responded well. Cities feel, however, that they need to find a palat- developers, and cities would like to recover some able way to recapture some of the value the train has of that increased value to pay for the costs of pub- created for private developers. This substantial pub- lic infrastructure and amenities. In order to stay more lic investment is yielding sizeable profits for private closely involved, the city of Sandton has provided city-owned land for a station through a lease (rather than a sale) to Gautrain and has worked directly with developers to make property adjacent to the transit stations available for higher-density developments. Officials have been successful in their efforts to pro- mote higher-density residential buildings with 10 to 12 stories instead of the usual 2 stories. Cape Town As with Johannesburg, the National Land Trans- port Act requires Cape Town to develop an Integrated Transportation Plan (ITP) and update it every 5 years. Cape Town's current ITP is effective from 2006 to 2011. To prepare the plan, city officials conducted extensive international research in cities with pro- gressive transportation policies, with the aim of iden- tifying the most successful approaches and the most current trends. Officials studied Victoria, Canada; Portland, Oregon; and several cities in South America. Through this research, Cape Town identified and adopted as priorities a sustainable development agenda; an adherence to the triple bottom line of social, economic, and environmental prosperity; and a commitment to a global environmental agenda. The foundation for Cape Town's recent efforts was laid by significant developments at the national level in the 1990s and early 2000s. The democratiza- Figure 6 Gautrain car in the depot. tion of South Africa and the adoption of a national 12

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constitution in 1993 created a mandate to treat all Growing at a rate of more than 1,000 households per South African residents equally and to remedy the year, this area houses more than 20,000 people who effects of the segregated communities and of the with- cross the river each day to access downtown Cape holding of public services and infrastructure from Town, and the area is anticipated to grow to more nonwhite communities. Furthermore, the national than 70,000 dwelling units. Providing public trans- government implemented new policy directives that portation to these high-growth areas will provide an require an integrated approach to development, plan- important connection between the growing residen- ning, and transportation. New legislation further tial areas and the employment areas in downtown emphasized environmental sensitivity and sustain- Cape Town. ability, attention to the spatial component of land use The MyCiTi system includes a main trunk line planning, sustainable transportation approaches, and with dedicated bus lanes, as well as feeder service an emphasis on economic development. Cape Town serving residential areas (see Figure 8). The first officials noted that these national initiatives were key phase of the MyCiTi feeder system is scheduled to levers influencing local policy. be operational in late 2011. This system will pro- The vision of the adopted ITP is to provide "a vide greater connectivity for the whole community world-class sustainable transport system that moves as buses will bring people who do not live adjacent all its people and goods effectively, efficiently, safely, to existing stations to the trunk line. Connecting and affordably." The key themes of the ITP are sus- MyCiTi with nonmotorized modes of transportation tainability, universal design, economic development, is also a priority to ensure a well-connected trans- and safety. Within these themes, the city has pursued portation network throughout the city. As a result, a mobility strategy to transform and restructure pub- the entire system is being constructed to include a lic transit by focusing on people and quality of life. parallel bikeway along the route. Cape Town has focused on the development of an IRT system. The primary components of that system are a world-class BRT system, a network of pedes- trian pathways and full-sized bicycle lanes, and close integration with other forms of public and private transport. BRT was selected over other options, such as light rail, due to the flexibility that BRT offers. Growth in Cape Town continues to occur at a high rate, and these high-growth areas are occurring in various areas surrounding the city. BRT is more affordable than rail and offers the flexibility to serve today's high-growth areas, as well as tomorrow's new-growth areas. There are a total of four phases for the imple- mentation of the IRT system in Cape Town and at full build out, all of Cape Town and its surround- ing towns will be included in the transportation network. Phase 1 of the IRT implementation includes providing service in the CBD and the areas north of the city and is anticipated to be completed in Sep- tember 2013. Phase 2 will provide service to the south and southeast, including service to Somerset West. Phases 3 and 4 focus on the northeast and eastern portions of Cape Town and will bring ser- vice to Stellenbosch. The MyCiTi BRT component of the IRT has been implemented throughout the CBD, to the airport, and to Table View. Table View and areas north of Cape Town have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Figure 8 Cape Town bus lanes. 13