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Collaboration and Communication 13 orative and communicative, the more likely those managers will be chosen for their leadership and management skills, further institutionalizing collaboration. Since leaders change on a regular basis, it is important for an organization to establish a lead- ership structure composed of people who can sustain a culture of collaboration and can help institutionalize the process. An institutionalized culture of collaboration allows for a standard set of expectations to be defined and a framework for new leaders and managers to emerge. Indicators of Successful Collaboration As stated, collaboration must begin with leadership. Leaders must set an example though their own commitment and demonstrated actions. They must set expectations for their staff and set standards of performance for managers to follow. A collaborative agency is able to increase accountability and transparency internally and externally, which is essential for organizational buy-in and increased confidence by various stakeholders to lend funding and support. Benefits that can be realized from successful collaboration are as follows: More resources available for funding projects/programs, staff training, new personnel, grants for innovative projects, and so on. More opportunities for partnership provided by potential funding entities, granting agencies, and so on. Higher quality proposals received from qualified consultants and better bids received from contractors. More interest in competing for space in a facility by existing and new tenants. Increase in passenger traffic and higher revenues realized from expanded patronage. Improved relationships with the community and elected officials (more opportunity for joint sponsorships/events and speaking engagements). Increase in awards and recognition by peers in the industry as well as in trade organizations, transportation CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY agencies, and so on. The following topics were covered in this chapter: The more successful the CACP process, the higher the Definitions of the 5 C's, Collaboration and communication techniques, demand to share best practices and lessons learned. Tak- Measurement and indicators of successful ing the time and opportunity to regularly reach out to and collaboration, engage the industry and broader audiences to share expe- Process to institutionalize collaboration, and riences of successful collaboration is critical to the contin- Best practices for communication and collaboration. ued growth of an agency and innovation. Additional Resources Denise, Leo, "Collaboration vs. C-Three (Cooperation, Coordination, and Communication)." Innovating, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Spring 1999) pp. 2535. Frey, B. B. et al., "Measuring Collaboration Among Grant Partners." American Journal of Evaluation, Vol. 27, No. 3 (September 2006) pp. 383392. Frey, B. B. et al., "Measuring Change in Collaboration Among School Safety Partners." Persistently Safe Schools: The National Conference of the Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Violence, 2004, pp. 6372. Wegner, Phil and E. Fort, Facilitating Government-Wide Collaboration and Knowledge Management: The MAX Federal Community. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) / Budget Formulation and Execution Line of Business (BFELoB) (July 22, 2009).