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CHAPTER 3 The CACP Process Context of the CACP Process CHAPTER 3 AT-A-GLANCE The CACP process has a number of principles, goals, This chapter includes · Inputs to the process: resources, tools, and indus- methods, feedback loops, and accounting mechanisms try experts; that need to be institutionalized and reinforced in order · Outputs to the process: results, products, and for the process to be sustained. Critical to achieving a motivations; sustainable, collaborative process is the obtaining of buy- · Feedback loop; in from stakeholders who realize the benefits of collabo- · Responsibility matrix for participants in the ration, value the process, and hold leaders and managers process; and accountable for achieving a CACP process (see Figure 3) · Sample organization charts. even through times of change and transition. The Inputs There are three sets of inputs that contribute to the CACP process: 1) Resources, 2) Tools, and 3) Industry Experts. Leadership is responsible for managing and growing the Resources that exist within an organization. The first type of resource is the agency's personnel at all levels of the organ- ization. The people in the agency are ultimately the drivers of the process and the beneficiaries of its success. They need to believe in the process and appreciate the benefits of collaboration. In man- aging a transparent, accountable and sound CACP process, it is the people within the organization that drive the process and ultimately will have pride of ownership. The second major type of resource is funding, which is fundamental to an agency's ability to deliver needed services and provide state-of-the-art facilities for safe operations. Funding sources are diverse and so are the regulations and requirements for the use of those funds. As such, funds need to be managed to show that obligations are being met, which increases confidence among funding entities, from the general public to the FAA, that an agency is worthy of the investment. The third type of resource is the agency's fixed assets that have both a monetary value and oper- ational needs. Those assets need to be designed, managed, operated and maintained to achieve the highest level of performance and confidence among users. Decisions need to be made about when to retire or replace assets in the context of what will deliver the highest operational effi- ciency and value to the agency, its funding entities, stakeholders, and the general public. The next set of inputs is the Tools used by the agency to demonstrate and measure the success of the process and performance of the system, and to communicate the value of the benefits real- ized to the people within an agency and to the organizations that provide funds to an agency. The first tool is the agency's performance metrics--both qualitative and quantitative--that doc- ument the system and administrative performance. These performance metrics support the per- formance management and oversight process, including the performance of the people in charge 14
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The CACP Process 15 Figure 3. Context of the CACP process. of the process, project delivery, asset value, and service delivery. The second tool is collaboration methods (see Chapter 2), which refers to the formal process (platform and coordinated sched- ule) for the Leadership Team and Capital Management Team to successfully manage the input and decision making during the ACP process (described at the end of this chapter). These meth- ods include person-to-person exchange, whenever possible and the use of real-time collabora- tion technology so that participants are able to share ideas to develop, implement, and oversee the ACP, manage change, assess risk, and develop alternative scenarios to achieve stated goals, targets, and benefits. The last tool is technology, which includes software and hardware used to facilitate the communication of information and the dynamic management of performance metrics and processes. Technology can range from simple Microsoft Word and Excel documents exchanged one at a time, to the use of sophisticated capital program management systems and collabora- tion software. True collaboration technology provides an interactive workspace for the synchronous discussion of ideas. Collaboration technology tools include teleconferencing, videoconferencing and web shar- ing applications such as GoToMeeting, WebEx, Bridgit, and AdobeConnect. A set of communica- tion tools commonly referred to as "collaboration software" can facilitate and improve the exchange of information among team members. This category includes document control software and web- based programs such as Microsoft SharePoint as well as sophisticated capital management systems such as SDG CapitalVision, CIPPlanner CIPAce, and Skire Unifier. The final set of inputs to the CACP process is Industry Experts. Agencies benefit from exter- nal review and opportunities to exchange best practices, innovations and lessons learned with other airport agency executives working to achieve the same goals. Agencies do not operate in a vacuum
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16 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook and every day there are different conditions and challenging situations that agencies need to respond to and address. Reaching out to other experts to learn how to be innovative and solve problems is a critical element to evolving and institutionalizing the process. The more exposure to both best practices and the experience of others, the more support for the process and buy-in will be garnered by showing how successes have been achieved elsewhere. There- fore, for collaboration to be successful and for a CACP process to be sustainable, it is critical that an agency reach outside, be open to new ideas, and share its own successes and lessons learned. The Outputs The outputs of the CACP process have three essential forms: 1) Results, 2) Products, and 3) Motivations. The Results are the targets achieved, the benefits realized and the value added. Results need to demonstrate to all stakeholders the targets that were achieved and those that were not. Results should also identify the benefits that were realized by using a well executed and man- aged CACP process and how that process added value in terms of monetary and/or operational efficiency, increased confidence in the agency and buy-in from stakeholders. The second of the outputs of the CACP process is the Product, which can take one of three forms: 1. The physical, tangible evidence of progress with the CACP process such as a written document, report, or data available for others to access and review. 2. A dedicated and respected adherence to a regular meeting and reporting schedule that provides a forum for collaboration, management, and improvement in the CACP process. 3. A process, model or system that supports the CACP process. The third type of output of the CACP process is Motivations. Motivations promote insti- tutionalizing change and adoption of the CACP process by encouraging participation in the process and sustaining a productive environment for innovation and improvement. People are instrumental in delivering a transparent and accountable CACP process; it is also people that need to demonstrate its value and benefits. Executive Leaders must invest in their people and encourage collaboration by recognizing performance. Motivations include rewards for good performance, recognition of best practices, and continued support to increase participation. Motivated staff will strive to produce high-quality results. It is also through staff that effective marketing of the benefits can be communicated among peers or at conferences or before boards and commissions. The more transparent and accountable a CACP process, the more confidence others will have in the process and the more inclined they will be to participate, thereby achiev- ing buy-in. The Feedback Loop The feedback loop is a continuous process of sharing observations, concerns, and sugges- tions with the intent to improve performance of an organization or a process. It illustrates how support can be provided to foster innovation and exceptional performance among key participants. The feedback loop uses data from past positive and negative experiences and practices to create best practices and lessons learned to be used to guide better decision mak- ing in the future. An organization's leaders have the responsibility to establish and maintain an effective feed- back loop. The commitment by leadership to the four principles of Flexibility, Accountability, Collaboration and Transparency, must be demonstrated throughout all the components of the CACP process, with continuous oversight, adherence to meeting schedules, openness to change, commitment to solve problems in a positive manner, and diligence in managing metrics