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72 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook 5 months. In the beginning, PHX received resistance from some users who wanted things to remain the way they used to be (creating documents by hand, transfer- ring files using FTP sites.) One year later, most users reported being very satisfied with the process. By March 2010, PHX was tracking 800 projects using the CPMS. The airport was able to eliminate redundant steps from the existing routine after implementing the software. PHX's CPMS contains built-in tools for managing funds that allow users to see fund- ing sources and amounts budgeted/authorized/paid and lets users monitor, man- age and track project changes. PHX has appointed "CIP Liaisons" within each division who use the software system to prepare project requests and coordinate development of project budget, scope and schedule. The CMD uses it to create and maintain a department-wide CIP budget management system. PHX has found reward in the clearly defined processes, detailed workflow and objective prioritization system that all projects must go through in the new soft- ware system. Users can easily check status within workflow due to the trans- parency of the process. There is buy-in from Internal Stakeholders and from senior management. Critical Success Factors: Solicited feedback from all stakeholders and used that feedback to refine the process during future implementation of new systems. Roles and responsibilities were clearly defined for CIP Liaisons and all others in the ACP process. Technology Decision Making It is important that decision makers spend adequate time reviewing options in order to select the right solution for the agency. They should evaluate the type of technology, vendors, specific modules and implementation methods. Agencies that make major technology investments with- out first performing a comprehensive analysis could end up with a system that does not meet their needs. A clear understanding of the agency's goals and objectives will inform and guide technology decisions. Far too many software applications end up as "shelf-ware." After they are purchased and the money is spent, they never achieve their stated objectives. (True, L. C. and Koenig, K. M., 2009) In order to make a decision regarding technology, an agency should do the following: 1. Compute the total cost of ownership (TCO), taking into consideration all required hardware as well as fees for licenses, annual support, service contracts and consultants. 2. Investigate up-front costs and recurring costs. 3. Calculate the ROI to determine whether the cost and effort of implementing the new tech- nology is worth undertaking. 4. Be sure to take into account the intangible benefits such as improved customer satisfaction and real-time access to information. 5. Compare apples to apples when reviewing various vendors and types of systems.

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Tools and Technology 73 Factors in Evaluating New Technology The following are factors agencies should consider in making decisions when evaluating new technology for capital planning: Current availability of internal IT support versus technical support available from vendor (cost, response time, turnaround time); Current technology inventory versus system requirements of potential technology (hardware/ software/environment/infrastructure/bandwidth); Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS)/Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) versus custom built; Installed software versus web-based/Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)/cloud hosting; Internal hosting versus third-party hosting; Complexity and types of modules needed; Scalability offered; Availability of real-time data; Security measures and user permissions; Level of data integrity; Database storage requirements; Ability to integrate with existing systems; Ability to import and or integrate existing data/data formats; Training requirements/learning curve; Ease, time, and cost of implementation; User-friendly interface; Remote access, external access; and Regulatory compliance (e.g., Sarbanes-Oxley). Case Study 7: Implementing Capital Program Management Technology BCAD selected and implemented a new CPMS in 2009. The system is a web-based, hosted service. The goal was to deliver the resources that staff needed directly to their desktops. Prior to implementation, BCAD's ACP process entailed repeated use of multiple static documents, duplicated across functional areas, with dozens of reports from various sources. The airport had several departments in charge of various functions such as airport expansion, planning and CIP, each with its own data and processes. BCAD spent a great deal of time standardizing processes. Before implementing the new software, BCAD undertook a Six Sigma effort to improve the CIP process. In order to create order from the chaos of many separate spreadsheets, standardiza- tion was the key. They used a phased approach for implementation, initially loading only a subset of projects into the system and training specific functional groups (Finance, Project Managers and Contract Administrators) to serve as beta testers. At the time of this ACRP research survey, the new system had been in place for one year with perhaps another 6 months before it achieved 100% functionality. BCAD elected to integrate individual systems rather than choosing a single- provider solution (CPMS, project management, construction management software).