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8 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook process tracking. A frequently used form of communication is to issue a directive, a standard of per- formance, or a policy statement. The goals, process, roles and responsibilities, targets, and benefits are the essential components of any effective ACP and must be communicated. This can be accom- plished by in-person meetings and by electronic or hard copy documentation (memos or reports). Coordination Coordination is the process of bringing a team together to develop common goals and objectives. It begins with the assumption that there are differences in what people comprehend about a process, and that there are overlapping responsibilities, redundancy in processes, and even conflicts in goals and objectives. Coordination is the framework through which the process is clearly communicated, and otherwise competitive and contradictory processes are aligned and mutually supported. Coordination is fundamentally based on two conditions: that the people and the units know what they are to do and when they are to do it; and that they see the relationship between what they do and what the coordinated whole achieves. (Denise, Leo 1999) Coordination is the responsibility of leaders to orchestrate, managers to demonstrate and staff to accommodate. Cooperation Cooperation is a process in which a team works together to achieve mutually beneficial goals and results. Critical to gaining cooperation from a team is a shared understanding of the goals, value and benefits of the process as well as the expectations of the teams' performance. Creating a culture of cooperation requires as much of an openness to work together on different ideas as it is about achieving high performance. Collaboration Collaboration is a dynamic process with real-time interaction between people that is iterative and evolutionary. It is not about agreement but rather about creation. It is an interactive process conducted by people, preferably in person, in which ideas can be exchanged and policies, targets, measures and metrics can be shaped and reshaped from people's input based on their experience and knowledge. Unlike communication, it is not about exchanging information. It is about using information to create something new. Unlike coordination, collaboration seeks divergent insight and spontaneity, not structural harmony. And unlike cooperation, collaboration thrives on differences and requires the sparks of dissent. (Denise, Leo 1999) For the purposes of this framework, there are four steps to creating collaboration. 1. Define the goals, objectives and challenges. Establish a results-driven framework with achiev- able targets. 2. Define the team and clearly communicate and document their roles and responsibilities. 3. Build sufficient time into the schedule for dialog and exchange of ideas. 4. Harness the results, demonstrate what is achieved and reward success. Consensus Consensus is when an entire group reaches general agreement such that all ideas and opinions have been listened to and considered. Consensus is a successful result of communication, cooperation and collaboration. It is the process by which the majority of those involved reach an agreement on the strategy, process, policy, and results. In fact, a true test of a successful collaboration is that consensus is reached indicating that those involved in the process have attained a shared understanding of what is important and can realize its benefits. Methods of Communication and Collaboration The focus of this Handbook is to describe effective methods and strategies for communicat- ing and collaborating as the distinctions between the two are often blurred. There is significant confusion and important differences between the two that play a key role in a successful ACP.

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Collaboration and Communication 9 Collaboration is predicated on good communication but communication does not substitute for collaboration. The methods of communication and collaboration can be via written documentation, elec- tronic documentation, or direct human interaction. Technology can significantly aid in com- munication as well as facilitate collaboration but nothing substitutes for in-person interaction. It is equally important to know who needs to be engaged in a collaborative process and who needs to be informed and therefore communicated with on a regular basis. During an ACP process, communication can take various forms, including Agency staff and project meetings; Written policies, procedures, standards, directives, and so on; Capital Program Management System (CPMS) software (status updates, automatic notifica- tion, data tracking, reports); Dashboard, scorecards, and so on; Email; Intranet, extranet, Internet (Microsoft SharePoint sites, document control sites, blogs, list- servs, wiki); Social and professional networking sites; Newsletters; Media relations programs; and Government and community affairs plans. Collaboration can take various forms, such as through Regularly scheduled meetings with project and leadership teams, Teleconferencing, Videoconferencing, Interactive whiteboard technology (e.g., Smartboard), and Web conferencing technology. Descriptions of the methods for both communicating and collaborating for each step in the CACP process are detailed in Chapters 4 through 6. A summary of recommended methods of communication and collaboration is included in Figure 2 as a quick reference guide. The best practices regarding collaboration and communication were primarily found in the literature from the healthcare, higher education and transportation industries. A few examples of notable findings are as follows: Best Practices for Collaboration Set expectations for results, products and levels of collaboration with clear measures to mark progress. Apply technology tools to create interactive shared workspaces when needed to synchronously connect people in different locations. Create a safe environment for all to listen to different opinions and share ideas. Document decision-making processes that describe how ideas are shared and consensus is reached. Establish a platform for all to report on mistakes and failures in a safe, non-punishment envi- ronment where creative solutions can be offered. Best Practices for Communication Conduct productive meetings by being clear on meeting objectives, providing ample notice, setting an agenda with designated participants, and clearly documenting accomplishments, actions and next steps.

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10 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook Stage Step Communication Collaboration Frequency Results Method Method Leadership/Policy Agency Policy Annually Accountability Organization Annually Accountability Resources Annually Accountability Management Monthly Accountability Transparency and ACP Policy Annually Accountability Development Transparency and Financial Planning and Management Annually Accountability Transparency and Capital Planning and Management Annually Accountability Capital Programming Annually Accountability Airport Capital Plan Annually Transparency Project Planning and Definition When completed Accountability Implementation Design As needed Accountability Construction Weekly Accountability Project Closeout and Evaluation When completed Accountability Operation Annually Accountability Performance Management Transparency and Monthly Accountability Oversight Transparency and Evaluation Annual/As needed Accountability Transparency and Meeting and Reporting Monthly Accountability Motivations Annual/As needed Transparency Symbols Hard Copy Documentation Electronic Documentation Dynamic Meetings Informative Meetings Figure 2. Recommendations for communication and collaboration.

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Collaboration and Communication 11 Provide status updates in writing and present findings to appropriate parties according to a designated schedule and discuss at regularly scheduled meetings. Develop multiple mediums for communicating on a regular basis: newsletters (hard copy and electronic), bulletins, staff meeting updates, published progress reports, email blasts, and so on. Case Study 1: Methods of Collaboration The Columbus*Stat Program formalized collaboration among key managers to be accountable, transparent and flexible in managing their programs and to allow for change and innovation. It main- tains a commitment to regularly communicate results of progress, success, failures and improvements to the mayor and his top aides. The program began with a half-day workshop involving department managers to collaboratively develop a mission statement and measures to accomplish that mis- sion. The development of those measures became more accurate and useful due to the dynamic and interactive involvement of the team in the process. Once the measures were defined, each had a defined reporting frequency and man- agers were responsible for reporting on their data quarterly or monthly. The Office of Performance Management meets with managers to establish per- formance measures, with the focus on developing measures that work for the man- agers and engages managers in a collaborative process that is supportive of their needs. Internally, managers communicate performance using written briefs and perform- ance dashboards. They collaborate on results in staff meetings and at regular Columbus*Stat panel review meetings. The City of Columbus, Ohio, attributes its success to the decision made by leader- ship to formally engage managers and their staff in the process, thereby demysti- fying the process and accelerating buy-in from managers and staff. The philosophy was that in order for the performance measurement to be meaningful, leadership needed to engage the people who work in the departments to develop the met- rics. From the beginning, ground rules were established requiring that metrics be directly related to the mission and communicated to the public regularly. For exam- ple, if the mission identifies a customer-focused service, then that metric will demonstrate how the customers will benefit from that service. Critical Success Factors Provides leaders and managers with the information they need to track perfor- mance, document success and identify opportunities for improvement. Collaboration requires strong leadership, designation of key departments with clear roles and responsibilities, established targets and results defined and reviewed regularly, and forum for regular review, monitoring and reporting on progress. Since its inception in January of 2006, the City has 100% of the departments actively participating in Columbus*Stat, involving over 600 metrics for 150 programs.