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APPENDIX B Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms Glossary of Terms Accountability. Demonstrating progress on tasks, actions and performance metrics against stated targets, goals and objectives established to fulfill the mission of the organization. Being accountable is the responsibility of each individual assigned to tasks, and requires monitoring and reporting on what has or has not been achieved and what has or has not worked. Agency. Any formalized unit of government having administrative, programmatic, legal, fidu- ciary, and/or regulatory functions granted to it through legislation, governmental mandate, or other means and for which it receives or generates revenue. Agreement. A formal document that states a shared understanding of roles and responsibili- ties, expectations and obligations. It can range from a written agreement among and between internal departments to an executive order signed by an elected official that requires coordina- tion, communication and collaboration of defined parties to deliver a specific product. It can take the form of a Memorandum of Agreement signed by participating entities, or a Memoran- dum of Understanding that binds parties to a specified outcome, or a Charter or Covenant that defines a process and its targeted outcomes. Airport Capital Plan (ACP). The document that defines the financial and programmatic expen- ditures for the capital programs and projects proposed to meet facility needs as well as agency mission and goals for a multi-year period. The ACP includes the scope, cost and schedule data for the programs and projects. Approving Authorities. Any board, commission, or committee made up of appointed or elected officials with the legal, regulatory or fiduciary authority to approve an Airport Capital Plan, such as a Board of Directors, a County or Aeronautical Commission or a Committee. Approving Authorities can be Internal or External Stakeholders depending on the agency's orga- nizational structure. Benchmarking. The process of comparing an agency or individual's performance metrics to best practices from other industries. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time, and cost. Improvements from learning mean doing things better, faster, and cheaper. Capital Management Team (CMT). A CMT is established by the Executive Leader with the Leadership Team and is composed of senior managers from those departments that are respon- sible and accountable to develop, implement and oversee the ACP and play a vital role in deter- mining the outcomes of the ACP. The composition of the CMT will depend on the size, structure and complexity of the airport. For example, a CMT may include a CEO of the airport, director of aviation (or the O&M Department), and senior managers from finance, planning, engineering and information technology (see Figure 5: Sample Organization Charts in Chapter 3). B-1
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B-2 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook Collaboration. A dynamic real-time interaction between people that is iterative and evolu- tionary. It is a process of creation--an exchange of ideas where two or more people come to a shared understanding about a process, product or event. Collaboration is typically employed to solve problems, develop new understandings and design new outcomes. To be effective, collab- oration needs to be set in a results-driven framework with targets defined and achievements noted and realized. Collaborative Airport Capital Planning (CACP) Process. A framework established to develop, implement and oversee the ACP that binds Executive Leaders, the Leadership Team, the CMT and Internal Stakeholders to create a dynamic environment in which information is used to develop a shared understanding of the goals, actions, targets, performance metrics, products and results in an ACP process. Collaboration Technology. The standard definition of Collaboration Software is "software that allows people to work cooperatively to achieve a common task regardless of their geographic location." For the purposes of the CACP process, we discuss Collaboration Technology that creates a shared virtual workspace and enables realtime collaboration, such as teleconferencing, and video conferencing, and web-sharing applications such as GoToMeeting, WebEx, Bridgit and AdobeConnect. Software commonly referred to as "collaborative" such as Microsoft SharePoint, SAP xRPM, document-control software, blogs and wikis, are still valuable tools for facilitating flexibility, accountability, collaboration and transparency, but do not meet the defini- tion of true collaboration as they merely provide a forum for communicating data back and forth. Communication. An action to dispense and/or exchange information from one person to another. It can be provided in person (meetings) or by electronic or hard copy documentation (memos or reports). The process is informative and is typically one-way. There is no exchange of ideas. It is a process by which people understand each other and how information is trans- ferred in an organization. The responsibility of communication lays directly with leaders and managers in an organization and it needs to be clear and done often. Consensus. The definition of consensus is that general agreement has been reached by a group as a whole, that all ideas and opinions have been listened to and taken into account. There- fore, consensus is the successful outcome of communication, cooperation and collaboration. It is the process by which the majority of those involved agree to the strategy, process, policy, out- comes, etc. Collaboration should yield consensus and indeed it is imperative to have agreement over a strategy or process. In fact a true test of a successful collaboration is when consensus is achieved as those involved in the process have attained an understanding of what is important. Cooperation. Requires a designated team with clearly defined roles, responsibilities, goals and outcomes. Critical to gaining cooperation from the team is an understanding of the goals, value and benefits of the process as well as the expectations of the teams' performance. Inherent in cooperation is the openness to change and innovation that often can take the form of disagree- ment or even conflict. Creating a culture of cooperation requires as much of an openness to col- laborate on different ideas as it is about achieving high performance. Coordination. Begins with the assumption of differences within an organization and includes people, units in departments and divisions within an organization. In many organizations there are overlapping responsibilities, redundancy in processes and even conflicts in goals and objec- tives. Coordination is the process by which clarity regarding those roles, responsibilities and out- comes is defined clearly and communicated often. It involves an openness to change and more importantly to learn from those responsible for managing the process. Coordination is the responsibility of leaders to orchestrate and managers to demonstrate. Components of the CACP Process. The three components of the CACP process are the Foun- dation, Nuts and Bolts and Checks and Balances.
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Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms B-3 · The Foundation--Leadership: Successful leadership and executive management are precur- sors to this and must include the following components that are clearly defined and commu- nicated to managers responsible for developing, implementing, and overseeing the CACP process: alignment of mission and goals (managing principles and philosophy), establishment of clear roles and responsibilities, establishment of the parameters of the process (phases, stages as well as risk elements), setting of expectations (reporting, accountability) and com- mitment to the necessary resources to realize goals. · Nuts and Bolts--Development: This includes the issuance of policy direction by leadership, facilities planning, project prioritization and selection, programming and financial analysis, establishing the metrics, drafting the capital plan, revisions and updates to the plan during fis- cal year, additions to or deletions from the plan during fiscal year, calendar, roles and respon- sibilities, and stakeholder involvement, collaboration, and communication. · Nuts and Bolts--Implementation: This includes defining project controls, project execution, tools, documents and forms, tracking, change management, roles and responsibilities, and stakeholder involvement, collaboration, and communication. · Checks and Balances--Oversight: This occurs throughout the duration of the ACP and includes refining the metrics, monitoring the roles and responsibilities of those involved (external or internal), and the performance of projects, fulfilling the reporting requirements and executing motivations. Criteria. Rules or principles upon which something can be measured or evaluated. Executive Leader. The individual at an airport responsible for setting policy, securing resources, developing and managing an organization and ultimately accountable for the programs, proj- ects and operations of an airport. This person is accountable to approving and regulatory author- ities for the delivery of services and the financial integrity of all operations, programs and services. The Executive Leader for an ACP can be the Director or CEO of the airport or the direc- tor of the airport function of a multi-purpose authority, depending on the size, structure and complexity of the airport (see Figure 5: Sample Organization Charts in Chapter 3). Flexibility. A managing principle of willingness to adapt processes based on performance metrics and feedback received from stakeholders and openness to change in response to shifting political priorities and funding that can be expected during any business cycle. Finance Department. The administrative department or division within an airport organiza- tion that provides financial management, accounting, and budgetary services, including prepa- ration and monitoring of the annual operating budget, cash management and investments, fixed assets, debt, grants, and long range financial forecasts, and ensures compliance to all relevant financial and budgetary regulations. For the purposes of this Handbook, the business develop- ment function is assumed to be in either the Finance Department or the Planning Department. Goal. The result or achievement toward which an organization's efforts are directed. Guideline. A practice that is not mandatory and suggests a future course of action. Inputs. There are three basic elements of inputs to a CACP process: Resources (personnel, funding and fixed assets), Tools (performance metrics, collaborative methods, technology), and Industry Experts (lessons learned, best practices and innovations). The inputs to a CACP process are the value base of an organization and fundamental in guiding the process and outcomes. Leadership. Leadership in this Handbook refers to an organizational role within an airport that includes establishing a clear vision and defining a mission; communicating that vision and mission with both Internal and External Stakeholders; providing a framework for collaborating on goals and objectives and establishing a platform for managers to share information, knowledge, and methods to realize the vision and mission and achieve goals and objectives; and coordinating
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B-4 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook and balancing conflicting interests of all stakeholders in an open and honest environment. Lead- ers are the people in charge of fulfilling this role and are qualified to establish the mission, goals and objectives; manage crises; and respond in creative ways in difficult situations. Leadership Team. The senior managers within an airport organization responsible for, and directors of, the financial, engineering, planning, operating, administration, and information technology departments. The Leadership Team in a GA or small-hub airport can be the Capital Management Team (see Figure 5: Sample Organization Charts in Chapter 3). Lessons Learned. A change in an organization's actions based on past experiences. It is neces- sary to understand and document why the action needs to be changed in addition to understand- ing what occurred that provoked the change. Lessons learned are used to refine performance metrics and targets in an agency. Management. Controlling and directing the actions of an organization. This can be accom- plished by one person or a multitude of people. Methods. The mechanism by which both communication and collaboration is achieved either by human interaction or electronic documentation. Communication methods can be accomplished by · Regular, formal and informal meetings that describe who, what and when; specify outcomes and reporting formats and requirements. · Dispensing information through hard copy or electronic documentation such as reports, plans, and performance metrics. Collaboration methods can be accomplished · In person. It is an interactive process where all parties are not exchanging information but ideas, and are using information to create something new. It typically involves the dynamic engagement of people (meetings where an exchange of ideas can occur) and/or can be sup- ported though, not substituted with, tools like software. · Through collaboration technology that creates a real-time, dynamic platform for multiple people to interact and exchange ideas at the same time. Motivations. Actions taken by leaders and managers to oversee and evaluate progress on the CACP process, document best practices and lessons learned, optimize staff performance and the CACP process, and reward successes. For example, pay for performance systems can be estab- lished and merit increases can be awarded based on staff's ability to meet performance metrics related to delivering projects within scope, budget and schedule. Objective. The ends that an organization sets out to achieve. Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Department. The department or division within an airport organization with the responsibility to operate and/or maintain a specific facility or facil- ities owned or operated by the agency. Outputs. The three elements of CACP process outputs include Results (targets achieved, ben- efits realized, value added), Products (written documentation and reports), and Motivations (buy-in, participation, support and recognition). The outputs are confirmation that a success- ful and innovative CACP process has been realized and communicated to stakeholders. Oversight. An integral phase of the CACP process that occurs throughout the duration of the ACP where a designated department is responsible and accountable for monitoring targets, per- formance metrics, goals, project performance, finance and schedule for delivering the services stipulated in the ACP. Oversight involves the active engagement, interaction and collaboration between the parties responsible for executing and overseeing projects and programs to revisit
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Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms B-5 assumptions, targets and process so as to effectively manage the outcomes, meet expectations and adjust resources (human, financial and technological) accordingly to conform to program and project requirements. Partner. A senior manager of a department responsible and accountable to collaborate with Task Leaders to deliver specific outcomes and products described in the CACP process. This individual is also responsible for developing an environment that encourages staff to communi- cate and collaborate, as well as commits to transparent and accountable participating in the CACP process to develop, implement and oversee the ACP. Performance Management. The process of maintaining performance-based management and creating a results-driven environment to maximize the performance of airport organizations, processes and systems. Performance Metrics. A quantitative or qualitative measure of an organization's activities and performance that supports a range of stakeholder needs from customers to employees. Tradi- tionally, many metrics are finance-based, focused on the performance of the organization, linked with the agency's business strategy, and derived to measure critically defined success fac- tors and demonstrate value. Developing performance metrics follows three basic steps: establish business framework (goals and objectives, process, products/outputs), develop measures and establish targets against which the results can be quantified or qualified. Planning Department. A management department in an airport responsible for formulating detailed plans to establish a course of action to develop, fund and implement organization goals, objectives, strategies, programs and projects and accounts for the need to balance a variety of needs or demands with the available resources. For the purposes of this Handbook, the business devel- opment function is assumed to be in either the Finance Department or the Planning Department. Product. The output or service produced by a step in the CACP process and delivered to stake- holders (whether internal or external). It takes the form of one of the following: · Written document such as an agreement that details roles and responsibilities and/or a shared understanding [a.k.a., charter or Memorandum of Agreement/Memorandum of Understand- ing (MOA/MOU)]; a manual or guide outlining a process; a form or worksheet for data; a contract; a published article; a cost estimate or schedule; or an official deliverable like the ACP, a financial report, a progress report, or a "Report Card." · A process, procedure, model, framework or system. · Data such as forecasts, projections, allocations, performance metrics or targets. · Event or activity such as a meeting where progress is documented, reviewed and evaluated, a presentation, a training program, an evaluation or an analysis. · Award or benefit. Project Closeout. The completion and settlement of the project that includes addressing all issues from turning the facility over the O&M Department and wrapping up contract issues with the consultant and the contractor to the finalizing of the financial information in order to confirm the total final project cost. These stages may include obtaining the O&M and training manuals, certificate of substantial completion, and certificate of occupancy, and addressing punch list items, contractual issues, functional issues and guarantee and warranty issues. Project Controls. The features of a project that must be managed and controlled in order to deliver a project successfully. They include scope, cost, funding, schedule, quality, resources (labor and materials), communication and correspondence, risk, and procurement. Project Evaluation. A method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to determine the manner and extent to which a program or a project achieves its intended objectives. The
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B-6 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook assessment process integrates lessons learned and suggestions that are documented so that knowledge is captured and organized in a way that will benefit future projects. Project Request List. A comprehensive, draft list of all potential projects including scope, order and total cost of projects and proposed funding sources by fiscal year. Reporting. The process of demonstrating progress in achieving targets, goals and results, which can be done formally through documentation and reports or in meetings where informa- tion is exchanged and adjustments are made collaboratively, if necessary. Stakeholder. Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the ACP, a program or a project, or whose interests positively or negatively affect the result of the ACP, a program, project execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the ACP, a pro- gram or a project and its results. · External Stakeholder. Those individuals, groups of individuals or organizations that exist and operate outside of the airport organization that include financial, regulatory and Approving Agencies (e.g., FAA, TSA and outside boards and commissions), governmental agencies (i.e., federal, state and local), tenants (e.g., airlines, concessions, rental cars), and the general public (e.g., neighbors, advocacy groups, and the traveling public). · Internal Stakeholder. Those individuals, groups of individuals or departments internal to the airport organization that may include the executive administration, operations and mainte- nance, administrative, and technical departments, and any board of directors internal to the airport. For example, in the CACP process an Internal Stakeholder may include the Leader- ship Team or for more complex airports, it may also include the CMT (see Figure 5: Sample Organization Charts in Chapter 3). Step Leader. The senior manager of a department responsible and accountable to execute the elements of a process step (i.e., tasks), partnering with the appropriate departments, to deliver the specific outcomes and products described in the CACP process framework. This individual is responsible for developing an environment that encourages staff to communicate and collab- orate, and for managing a transparent and accountable CACP process to develop, implement, and oversee the ACP. Technical Department. The administrative department or division within an airport organ- ization with the responsibility to execute technical functions such as planning, designing or build- ing a project. This may include planning, engineering, environmental and information technology departments, depending upon the size, structure and complexity of the airport organization (see Figure 5: Sample Organization Charts in Chapter 3). Tracking. A process using established mechanisms to follow performance against agreed-upon targets and measures. Transparency. A managing principle where processes are clearly defined, decisions are well documented and information is easily available to all participants. Abbreviations and Acronyms AAAE: American Association of Airport Executives AASHO: American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AC: Advisory Circular ACI: Airports Council International ACINA: Airports Council InternationalNorth America
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Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms B-7 ACIP: Airport Capital Improvement Program ACP: Airport Capital Plan ACRP: Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act AIP: Airport Improvement Program ALP: Airport Layout Plan ALPA: Airline Pilots Association AM: Asset Management AMP: Airport Master Plan AMT: Alternate Minimum Tax AOPA: Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association APM: Airport Project Manager APTA: American Public Transportation Association ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials ATA: Air Transport Association ATA: American Trucking Associations BCA: Benefit-Cost Analysis BCAD: Broward County Aviation Department BEF: Budget Effectiveness Factor BIM: Building Information Modeling CACP: Collaborative Airport Capital Planning CBA: Cost-Benefit Analysis CBP: Collaborative Business Process CFC: Customer Facility Charge CFO: Chief Financial Officer CFR: Code of Federal Regulations CI: Conditions Index CIP: Capital Improvement Program CIRP: Citizen Implementation Review Panel CMD: Capital Management Division CMMS: Computerized Maintenance Management Systems CMT: Capital Management Team COO: Chief Operating Officer COTS: Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPM: Capital Program Management CPMS: Capital Program Management Systems CPRC: Capital Planning Review Committee CRM: Customer Relationship Management CTAA: Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP: Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS: U.S. Department of Homeland Security DMAIC: Define, Measure, Analyze, Innovate, Control DOE: U.S. Department of Energy DOT: Department of Transportation EA: Environmental Assessment EAM: Enterprise Asset Management EIS: Environmental Impact Statement EPA: Environmental Protection Agency
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B-8 Collaborative Airport Capital Planning Handbook EPMS: Enterprise Project Management System ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning FAA: Federal Aviation Administration FHWA: Federal Highway Administration FMCSA: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FONSI: Finding of No Significant Impact FRA: Federal Railroad Administration FTA: Federal Transit Administration GA: General Aviation GIS: Geographical Information System GOTS: Government Off-the-Shelf GPS: Global Positioning System IATA: International Air Transport Association ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IF: Importance Factor IRR: Internal Rate of Return ISTEA: Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 IT: Information Technology ITE: Institute of Transportation Engineers IWMS: Integrated Workplace Management System KPI: Key Performance Indicators KSA: Knowledge, Skills, Abilities LCCA: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LOB: Line of Business LTC: Legislative Transportation Committee Massport: Massachusetts Port Authority Metro Nashville: Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee MII: Majority-In-Interest MOA: Memorandum of Agreement MOU: Memorandum of Understanding MS: Microsoft MWAA: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO: National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP: National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP: National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NJDOT: New Jersey Department of Transportation NTSB: National Transportation Safety Board O&M: Operation and Maintenance PANYNJ: The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey PCI: Pavement Condition Index PDIS: Project Delivery Information System PF: Priority Factor PFC: Passenger Facility Charge PHX: City of Phoenix PM: Project Manager PMMS: Pavement Maintenance Management System PMO: Project Management Office
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Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms B-9 PMRS: Project Management & Reporting System PMS: Pavement Management System PPF: Project Prospectus Form PPM: Project Portfolio Management QC: Quality Control RDBMS: Relational Database Management System RFP: Request for Proposal RFQ: Request for Qualifications ROI: Return on Investment SaaS: Software-as-a-Service SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU: Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users SOA: Services Oriented Architecture SOP: Standard Operating Procedures TAA: Tucson Airport Authority TCO: Total Cost of Ownership TCRP: Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21: Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TIM: Transportation Information Model TIP: Transportation Improvement Program TRB: Transportation Research Board TSA: Transportation Security Administration USDOT: United States Department of Transportation WBS: Work Breakdown Structure WSDOT: Washington State Department of Transportation XML: Extensible Markup Language