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CONTENTS (cont'd) CONTENTS Introduction, 3 VIII. Post-September 11 Security Issues and Public Access to Transit Real-Time Data, 36 I. Copyright Law and the Protection of Transit Agencies' Real-Time Data, 3 Conclusion, 38 A. Whether a Public Transit Agency May Hold a Copyright in Real-Time Appendix A: Discussion of Responses to Survey Questions, 40 Data, 3 B. Whether Real-Time Data Are Copyrightable as a Compilation or Appendix B: Transit Agencies Responding to the Survey, 49 Database, 4 Appendix C: Survey Questions, 51 C. Issues for Real-Time Data Under the Copyright Act, 6 D. Registration of Automatic Databases with Real-Time Data, 10 II. Copyright of Computer Programs for the Collection and Dissemination of Real-Time Data, 11 A. Applicability of the Copyright Act to Computer Programs, 11 B. Copyright of Audiovisual Programs, 11 C. Computer Programs and Compilations or Databases, 12 D. Copyright and Web Sites, 13 E. Copyright Protection and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 13 III. Protection for Real-Time Data Under State Law, 14 A. Preemption by the Copyright Act of Causes of Action Under State Law, 14 B. Tort of Misappropriation Under State Law, 16 IV. Whether a Transit Agency Has Proprietary Rights in Real- Time Data, 19 V. Contractual Issues and the Protection of Real-Time Data, 21 A. Use of Contracts, Licenses, and End-User Agreements, 21 B. Whether Copyright Law Preempts Provisions of Licenses or Other Agreements Seeking to Protect Noncopyrightable Data, 23 C. Transit Agencies' Survey Responses Regarding Laws and Contractual Issues, 24 VI. Protection of Real-Time Data Under Other Federal and State Laws, 26 A. Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 26 B. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, 27 C. State Legislation Applicable to Electronic Communications or Stored Data, 28 D. Whether Real-Time Data Constitutes a Trade Secret, 28 E. Licensing of Real-Time Data and the Computer Information Transactions Act, 30 VII. Whether Government Transit Agencies May Be Required to Release Real-Time Data, 32 A. Federal FOIA Issues, 32 B. State Public Records Disclosure Laws, 32