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In summary, the studies indicated that the pro- ACI 318, 2008, Building Code Requirements for Struc- posed longitudinal joint detail had sufficient strength, tural Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete fatigue characteristics, and crack control for the max- Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. imum service loads determined from the analytical Bell, C., Shield, C.K., French, C.W. (2006), Application studies and was deemed to be a viable connection of Precast Decks and other Elements to Bridge system to provide continuity in jointed deck systems Structures. Mn/DOT Technical Report No. MN/RC 2006-37, Minnesota Department of Transportation, over piers. The tests also confirmed that the U-bar St. Paul. detail was a viable connection system for the trans- Eriksson, W.D. (2008), Vertical Tensile Stresses in End verse joint. The joint with the 7-day cure material Regions of Precast Composite Slab-Span Systems and was able to achieve higher strengths, which might be Restraint Moments, MS Thesis, University of Min- attributed to the section with the lower strength nesota-Twin Cities Graduate School, Minneapolis. overnight cure material being unable to fully develop French, C. et al. (2011), NCHRP Web-Only Document the reinforcement. To reduce the crack sizes in the 173: Cast-in-Place Concrete Connections for Precast joints, it is proposed to reduce the service stresses in Deck Systems. NCHRP 10-71 Final Report. Trans- the joints. This could be accommodated economi- portation Research Board of the National Academies, cally by using more lower-grade reinforcement (i.e., Washington, D.C., 782 pp. Grade 60 rather than Grade 75 bars). Frosch, R.J., Bice, J.K., Erickson, J.B. (2006), Field Inves- tigation of a Concrete Deck Designed by the AASHTO Empirical Method: The Control of Deck Cracking, Conclusions and Recommendations Indiana Department of Transportation Technical The research completed under NCHRP Project Report FHWA/IN/JTRP-2006/32. September. Indiana 10-71 study resulted in the development of a compre- Department of Transportation, Indianapolis. hensive design guide for the design and construction Molnau, K., Dimaculangan, M.C. (2007), "Inverted T of longitudinal and transverse joints for full-depth Design." LRFD Bridge Design Workshop, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, June 12. deck panels and DBTs. The design guide covers the Naito, C., and Deschenes, D. (2006), Horizontal Shear detailing requirements for both loop-bar and headed- Capacity of Composite Concrete Beams without bar details. Adequate performance of these systems Ties, Proc., Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute requires the use of lacer bars which improve the (PCI) National Bridge Conference. Grapevine, TX. mechanical anchorage of these systems. Tests were Oesterle, et al. (2009), "Design and Construction Guide- conducted to investigate the behavior of these systems lines for Long-Span Decked Precast, Prestressed in shallow decks to emulate the flanges of DBTs. Concrete Girder Bridges," Final Report, NCHRP These shallow deck thicknesses required the use of Project 12-69. Construction Technology Laborato- tighter bends than presently allowed by the bridge ries, Inc., Skokie, IL. design specifications and, thus, the recommendations Smith, M.J. et al. (2008), Monitoring and Analysis of are restricted to wire reinforcement and SS reinforce- Mn/DOT Precast Composite Slab Span System ment, which may accommodate tighter bends due to (PCSSS), Mn/DOT Technical Report No. MN/RC their higher levels of ductility. Another important fea- 2008-41. September, Minnesota Department of Trans- portation, St. Paul. ture of these joints is the performance of the CP ma- Uijl, J.A.d. (1983), Tensile Stresses in the Transmission terials, which was also investigated through a series Zones of Hollow-Core Slabs Prestressed with Pre- of laboratory tests that included an evaluation of tensioned Strands, Report 5-83-10, The Netherlands: the shrinkage and F/T characteristics of candidate Delft University of Technology Department of Civil overnight-cure and 7-day cure materials that might Engineering. be considered in rapid construction applications. Three MathCAD examples were developed to illus- REFERENCES FOR LONGITUDINAL trate the proposed detailing for longitudinal joints AND TRANSVERSE JOINTS IN DBT between DBTs, longitudinal joints in full-depth pre- AND FULL-DEPTH PRECAST PANEL ON cast panels on girders, and transverse joints. GIRDER SYSTEM PORTION OF STUDY REFERENCES FOR PCSSS PORTION Gulyas, R.J. and Champa, J.T. (1997), "Use of Compos- ite Testing for Evaluation of Keyway Grout for Pre- OF STUDY cast Prestressed Bridge Beams," American Concrete AASHTO, 2010, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Speci- Institute (ACI) Materials Journal, Technical Paper, fications, 5th Edition, Washington, D.C. V. 94, No. 3, MayJune, pp. 244250. 31

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Gulyas, R.J., Wirthlin, G.J., and Champa, J.T. (1995), Matsumoto, E. et al. (2001), "Development of a Precast "Evaluation of Keyway Grout Test Methods for Pre- Bent Cap System," Project summary report 1748-S, cast Concrete Bridges," Precast/Prestressed Con- University of Texas Austin, March. crete Institute (PCI) Journal, V. 40, No. 1, January Menkulasi, F. and Roberts-Wollmann, C.L. (2005), February, pp. 4457. "Behavior of Horizontal Shear Connections for Full- Issa, M.A., Cyro do V., Abdalla, H., and Islam, M.S. Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Decks on Prestressed (2003), "Performance of Transverse Joint Grout I-Girders," Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Materials in Full-Depth Precast Concrete Bridge Deck (PCI) Journal, V. 50, No. 3, MayJune, pp. 6073. Systems," Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Mrinmay B. (1986), "Precast Bridge Deck Design Sys- (PCI) Journal, V. 48, No. 4, JulyAugust, pp. 92103. tem," Prestressed/Precast Concrete Institute (PCI) Li, L., Ma, Z., Griffey, M.E., and Oesterle, R.G. (2010), Journal, V. 31, No. 2, MarchApril, pp. 4086. "Improved Longitudinal Joint Details in Decked Bulb Nottingham, D. (1996), "Joints Grouting in Alaskan Tees for Accelerated Bridge Construction: Concept Bridges and Dock Decks," Concrete International, Development," ASCE Journal of Bridge Engineering, V. 18, No. 2, February, pp. 4548. 15(3), 327336. Russell, H.G. and Ozyildirim, H.C. (2006), "Revising Li, L., Ma, Z., and Oesterle, R.G. (2010a), "Improved Lon- high performance concrete classifications," Concrete gitudinal Joint Details in Decked Bulb Tees for Accel- International, August, pp. 4349. erated Bridge Construction: Fatigue Evaluation," ASCE Stanton, J.F., and Mattock, A.H. (1986), NCHRP Report Journal of Bridge Engineering, 15(5), 511522. 287: Load Distribution and Connection Design for Ma, Z. et al. (2007), "Field Test and 3D FE Modeling of Precast Stemmed Multibeam Bridge Superstruc- Decked Bulb-Tee Bridges," ASCE Journal of Bridge tures, TRB, National Research Council, Washing- Engineering, 12(3), 306314. ton, D.C. Martin, L.D., and Osborn, A.E.N. (1983), Connections Tepke, D.G. and Tikalsky, P.J. (2007), "Best Engineering for Modular Precast Concrete Bridge Decks, Report Practices Guide for Bridge Deck Durability Report," No. FHWA/RD-82/106, United States Department Report no. PTI 2007-63. Pennsylvania Transporta- of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. tion Institute, University Park, 31 pp. 32

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-21328-8 90000 Subscriber Categories: Highways Bridges and Other Structures 9 780309 213288 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.