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HMCRP HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 3 Sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Guidebook for Conducting Administration Local Hazardous Materials Commodity Flow Studies

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011.

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM HMCRP REPORT 3 Guidebook for Conducting Local Hazardous Materials Commodity Flow Studies David H. Bierling TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM College Station, TX George O. Rogers HAZARD REDUCTION AND RECOVERY CENTER DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM College Station, TX Deborah L. Jasek Anna A. Protopapas Jeffrey E. Warner Leslie E. Olson TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM College Station, TX Subscriber Categories Motor Carriers Planning and Forecasting Security and Emergencies Research sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE HMCRP REPORT 3 RESEARCH PROGRAM The safety, security, and environmental concerns associated with Project HM-01 transportation of hazardous materials are growing in number and ISSN 2150-4849 complexity. Hazardous materials are substances that are flammable, ISBN: 978-0-309-15560-1 explosive, or toxic or that, if released, produce effects that would threaten Library of Congress Control Number 2011927382 human safety, health, the environment, or property. Hazardous materials 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. are moved throughout the country by all modes of freight transportation, including ships, trucks, trains, airplanes, and pipelines. The private sector and a diverse mix of government agencies at all levels are responsible for controlling the transport of hazardous materials and for COPYRIGHT INFORMATION ensuring that hazardous cargoes move without incident. This shared goal Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining has spurred the creation of several venues for organizations with related written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously interests to work together in preventing and responding to hazardous published or copyrighted material used herein. materials incidents. The freight transportation and chemical industries; Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this government regulatory and enforcement agencies at the federal and state publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the levels; and local emergency planners and responders routinely share understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. information, resources, and expertise. Nevertheless, there has been a long- It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- standing gap in the system for conducting hazardous materials safety and for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or security research. Industry organizations and government agencies have reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. their own research programs to support their mission needs. Collaborative research to address shared problems takes place occasionally, but mostly occurs on an ad hoc basis. NOTICE Acknowledging this gap in 2004, the U.S. DOT Office of Hazardous The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Hazardous Materials Materials Safety, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the Federal Railroad Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard pooled their approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. resources for a study. Under the auspices of the Transportation Research The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this Board (TRB), the National Research Council of the National Academies report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. appointed a committee to examine the feasibility of creating a cooperative The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to research program for hazardous materials transportation, similar in concept procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The committee concluded, The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the in TRB Special Report 283: Cooperative Research for Hazardous Materials researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Transportation: Defining the Need, Converging on Solutions, that the need for cooperative research in this field is significant and growing, and the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research committee recommended establishing an ongoing program of cooperative Council, and the sponsors of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein research. In 2005, based in part on the findings of that report, the Safe, solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) authorized the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). The HMCRP is intended to complement other U.S. DOT research programs as a stakeholder-driven, problem-solving program, researching real-world, day-to-day operational issues with near- to mid- term time frames. Published reports of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR HMCRP REPORT 3 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor HMCRP PROJECT 01 PANEL James J. Brogan, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Austin, TX (Chair) Scott R. Drumm, Port of Portland (OR), Portland, OR Catherine T. Lawson, State University of New York - Albany, Albany, NY William L. Reese, Idaho State Police, Meridian, ID Ronald DiGregorio, PHMSA Liaison Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison Rolf R. Schmitt, FHWA Liaison James Simmons, PHMSA Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project was conducted under HMCRP Project HM-01 by Texas A&M University (TAMU) and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI). TAMU and TTI were the contractors for the project, with the Texas A&M Research Foundation serving as Fiscal Administrator. The project was sponsored by PHMSA of the U.S.DOT, and administered through TRB's HMCRP. Project supervisors and authors of this guidebook are David Bierling, associate research scientist at TTI and George Rogers, professor of landscape architecture and urban planning at TAMU and senior fellow of TAMU's Hazard Reduction and Recovery Center. Dr. Rogers was project director and principal inves- tigator for the project, and Mr. Bierling was co-principal investigator. Project participants include Debbie Jasek, Leslie Olson, Annie Protopapas, and Jeffrey Warner of TTI, and Gao Shan, graduate assistant researcher at TAMU and TTI. The project team acknowledges the assistance of the National Organization of SARA Title III Program Officials (NASTTPO), which graciously provided time at organization conferences for survey pre-testing and review of results, and encouraged survey participation among its membership. The project team acknowledges the participation of survey respondents from Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs), Tribal Emergency Response Commissions (TERCs), and State Emergency Response Commis- sions (SERCs), who provided valuable information about their needs, successes, and challenges. The proj- ect team acknowledges the participation of case study LEPCs for their willingness to provide documenta- tion and describe the specific aspects of their projects. The project team also acknowledges the feedback and input from the LEPC and SERC community for their review of project results and input on findings. Finally, the project team acknowledges the constructive feedback and suggestions provided by TRB's proj- ect panel.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board HMCRP Report 3: Guidebook for Conducting Local Hazardous Materials Commodity Flow Studies presents a user-friendly guidebook to support risk assessment, emergency response preparedness, resource allocation, and analyses of hazardous commodity flows across juris- dictions. The guidebook, which updates the U.S. Department of Transportation's Guidance for Conducting Hazardous Materials Flow Surveys, is targeted at transportation planning and operations staff at the local and regional levels, as well as local and regional personnel involved in hazardous materials training and emergency response. All modes of transporta- tion, all classes and divisions of hazardous materials, and the effects of seasonality on haz- ardous materials movements are discussed. The contractor's final report and appendices (unedited by TRB) are available electroni- cally at http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=1603. The final report documents the research supporting the development of the Guidebook. Local and regional governments require information on the types, quantities, and loca- tions of hazardous materials originating, terminating, or moving through their jurisdictions in order to plan for effective and appropriate emergency response to incidents. However, local planners often do not have access to reliable and comprehensive data on the flow of hazardous materials within their jurisdictions. By and large, existing data sources are too broad and cover flows at the national level and, to a limited extent, the state level. More detailed data involving all modes of transportation are required by local and regional gov- ernments in order to make informed decisions about hazardous materials training and emergency response preparedness. Under HMCRP Project 01, Texas A&M University and the Texas Transportation Insti- tute were asked to develop a guidebook to (1) explain data collection methodologies to obtain hazardous materials commodity flow data at the local level (from public and private sources); (2) describe methods that can be used by local and regional planners to identify and estimate hazardous materials flows in their jurisdictions; and (3) describe promising practices and suggestions to help local jurisdictions successfully plan for, conduct, and implement a hazardous materials commodity flow survey.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 10 Chapter 1 Introduction 10 1.1 Need for Document 12 1.2 Hazmat Transportation Overview 15 1.3 Organization of this Report 17 Chapter 2 Select Leadership, Set Objectives, and Define Data Requirements 17 2.1 Select Leadership 19 2.2 Set Objectives 22 2.3 Define Data Requirements 23 2.4 HMCFS Objectives and Public Protection Goals 24 Chapter 3 Collect and Review Baseline Information and Scope Project 24 3.1 Collect Baseline Information 26 3.2 Review and Evaluate Baseline Information 28 3.3 Scope the HMCFS Project 30 Chapter 4 Collect and Review Existing Data 30 4.1 Existing Data Overview 30 4.2 Locally or Institutionally Available Data Sources 36 4.3 Electronic Databases and Reports 41 4.4 Review Existing Data and New Data Needs 43 Chapter 5 Collect and Validate New Data 43 5.1 Conduct Interviews 45 5.2 Considerations for Field Data Collection 50 5.3 Collect Field Data 55 5.4 Validate New Data 57 Chapter 6 Analyze and Document Data 57 6.1 Railway, Pipeline, Waterway, and Airway Data Analysis 59 6.2 Truck/Roadway Data Analysis 59 6.3 Document the Data 66 6.4 Summarize Information 67 6.5 HMCFS Content 69 Chapter 7 Implement Information 69 7.1 Review Objectives and Limitations 69 7.2 Disseminate and Communicate Information 72 7.3 Apply Results 74 7.4 Archiving the HMCFS 74 7.5 Revisions and Updates

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75 Chapter 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 77 References 79 Key Terms and Acronyms A-1 Appendix A Hazardous Materials Placards B-1 Appendix B Shipping Documents and Placard Numbers from 2008 ERG C-1 Appendix C HMCFS Case Studies D-1 Appendix D Promising Practices for Conducting an HMCFS E-1 Appendix E HMCFS Sampling and Scheduling F-1 Appendix F Sample Railroad Data Request Form G-1 Appendix G Electronic Database and Report Descriptions H-1 Appendix H 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey Data I-1 Appendix I Large Truck Incident and Accident Information J-1 Appendix J Truck/Hazmat Placard Identification Sheet and Count Tabulation Sheets K-1 Appendix K Existing and New HMCFS Data Analysis Examples Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.