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CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Need for Document A hazardous materials (hazmat) commodity flow study (CFS) is a special kind of transporta- tion analysis project. It is intended to identify the types and amounts of hazardous materials transported through a specified geographic area--such as a single community, a large urban area, a region, or a state--and the routes used for transporting these commodities. It is a methodical way to identify and quantify the unique hazmat transportation hazards that may be present in a community. This guidebook was developed to update the U.S.DOT's 1995 Guidance for Conducting Hazardous Materials Flow Surveys (1), using funds from U.S.DOT's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), administered through TRB's Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). Its intended users are local government entities--including local emergency planning committees (LEPCs) and tribal emergency response commissions (TERCs), counties, municipalities, councils of government, tribal councils, rural communities, and other similar authorities. It also can be used at the state and federal levels. The guidebook Can be used by LEPCs and other local, state, tribal, and federal emergency planners and stake- holders for evaluating hazmat flows, as well as by metropolitan planning organization (MPO) or department of transportation (DOT) staff for hazmat-specific or similar commodity flow studies; Provides guidance for planning, conducting, and implementing a local-level hazmat com- modity flow study (HMCFS, used to denote either the singular or plural in this guidebook); Covers road, rail, pipeline, water, and air modes of transportation; Focuses specifically on the objectives, resources, data, analysis, and applications that are com- monly found or are actionable at local levels across the United States; Does not cover every possible type of commodity flow data source or analysis method but rather provides a "toolbox" of different data sources and ways of evaluating information; and Was developed based on a comprehensive review of literature, local practice, and available data resources. 1.1.1 Role of the HMCFS in Emergency Planning An HMCFS is not a plan of itself, but it provides a knowledge basis for critical aspects of the emergency planning process. LEPCs have responsibility for local emergency planning under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). LEPCs develop emergency response plans for dealing with chemical hazards, either as stand-alone plans or often as part of a community's comprehensive emergency management plan (CEMP), or emergency operations plan (EOP). Users of this guidebook who are involved in comprehensive emergency planning may be familiar with the Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101: Developing and Maintaining 10

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Introduction 11 State, Territorial, Tribal, and Local Government Emergency Plans (2), developed by the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA), which is a part of DHS. CPG 101 lays out guidelines for developing emergency plans at local, state, and federal levels. An HMCFS informs on the following three key elements of the emergency planning process identified in CPG 101: 1. Understanding the situation, 2. Determining goals and objectives, and 3. Plan development. An HMCFS can inform an emergency plan's hazard-specific annexes that are focused on haz- ardous material, and also the basic plan and emergency support functions/functional annexes. Figure 1-1 illustrates how an HMCFS can inform and be informed by the emergency planning process identified in CPG 101. An HMCFS can be used for multiple purposes in emergency management and response, as well as in broader community planning and risk assessment. It provides information that can be used to help "anticipate conditions and systematically identify potential problems and workable solutions" (2, p 1-2) to hazmat incidents. In the absence of information that can be obtained through an HMCFS, emergency planners may need to make a great number of assumptions about hazmat transportation in their community. CPG 101 urges planners "to use assumptions sparingly and to put greater effort into performing research and acquiring facts" (2, p 3-13). Infor- mation obtained through an HMCFS can Reduce uncertainty about which hazmat transport hazards are locally present; Help identify hazmat transportation risks that may present in a community; and Be validated by the experiences and knowledge of local responders, carriers, and other stake- holders when HMCFS results are communicated, reviewed, and implemented in the broader emergency and community planning context. Information from an HMCFS helps inform the science of planning by providing quantifiable, measurable information about the types and levels of hazardous materials that may be expected to be transported through a community. Application of HMCFS information affects the art of Figure 1-1. The HMCFS as part of the emergency planning process. Source: Adapted from CPG 101, Figure 3.2