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Select Leadership, Set Objectives, and Define Data Requirements 19 Identifying data requirements for the HMCFS project, based on the objectives; Many LEPCs obtain professional assistance for Identifying volunteers and other resources available for collect- conducting their HMCFS. Victoria County, ing HMCFS data; Texas, LEPC members worked with state Scoping and scheduling the HMCFS project tasks; agency staff to conduct their HMCFS project Coordinating volunteer and other data collection activities; in 2009. LEPC executive staff from Victoria Compiling and reviewing baseline and existing HMCFS data; City and County Emergency Management and Compiling and validating new HMCFS data; the Victoria Citizens Medical Center identified Analyzing HMCFS data; project objectives and local resources, and co- Documenting HMCFS results; and ordinated data collection by volunteer partici- Presenting HMCFS results to the HMCFS core team. pants from local industry, hospitals, the fire The HMCFS project team should be identified at the same time department, and other groups. State agency as, or soon after, the core team is identified. The project team may staff processed and evaluated the data and include some or all of the core planning team members, as well as prepared the project report. Over 330 hours other individuals who have time, interest, and capability for a lead- of truck traffic data were collected for the ing role in the HMCFS project. An LEPC or TERC might assign major roadway segments around and HMCFS project leadership to a transportation- or hazmat-focused through Victoria, Texas. subcommittee. A local government agency might assign HMCFS project leadership to a planner or planning group. To the degree that consultants, university faculty, and state or federal agency of- ficials are involved in the project, they may be included in, or even lead, the HMCFS project team. 2.2 Set Objectives The goal of the HMCFS should be to inform emergency and community plans so that they are adequate, feasible, acceptable, complete, and in compliance with guidance and doctrine. Setting specific objectives for the HMCFS project helps LEPCs, TERCs, and other local entities meet this goal. The core team is responsible for setting the objectives of the HMCFS can provide information to support a HMCFS project. This is one of the most important steps of the wide range of emergency planning and train- HMCFS process, and helps answer the question of why to conduct ing applications. Peninsula LEPC in Virginia an HMCFS. Local entities may misdirect or misallocate resources used the information for emergency planning and fail to achieve desired results by not understanding the infor- by different local governments in the area. mation that is needed to support the project's objectives. Vermont's LEPC #3 wanted to identify possi- Local entities conduct an HMCFS for a variety of reasons to sup- ble traffic disruptions and environmental risks port strategic, tactical, and operational planning for emergency re- to area watersheds. Lewis/Upshur Counties sponse, transportation, and broader community planning applica- LEPC focused on prevention and mitigation tions. HMCFS information can be applied to scenario-, function-, of hazmat incidents. A regional HMCFS in and capabilities-based planning as well. Different HMCFS objec- Arizona was used for resource allocation and tives can be used in the frameworks of prevention, protection, re- informing agencies about risks. Cambria sponse, and/or recovery in emergency planning. The following sec- County LEPC in Pennsylvania focused on iden- tions describe the objectives categories in further detail in order of tifying response needs as well as enhancing their complexity (from least to most): awareness, minimum scenar- education and awareness of hazmat risks. ios definition, maximum scenarios definition, emergency planning, Victoria County LEPC in Texas was interested comprehensive planning, equipment needs, resource scheduling, in changes in hazmat transport patterns and hazmat route designation, and legal takings. Other HMCFS appli- considering the need for hazmat route desig- cations may coincide with these categories. nations. How would you use HMCFS informa- tion in your community? These objectives categories are used throughout this guidebook as they apply to the HMCFS process. Note that this guidebook

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20 Guidebook for Conducting Local Hazardous Materials Commodity Flow Studies focuses on collecting and evaluating HMCFS information to support these objectives, not on processes for achieving those individual objectives per se. Promising practices that have been identified for conducting HMCFS are provided as a re- source in Appendix D. These practices were identified in extensive research that was conducted for this guidebook, including a survey of LEPCs about how they conducted HMCFS and detailed examinations of HMCFS case studies. Appendix D.1 includes the first of these promising prac- tices, an HMCFS Objectives Checklist. 2.2.1 Awareness A frequent concern for LEPCs and local planners is that local officials and the general public "don't know and don't care" about hazmat transport risks in their community, except when it "becomes a crisis." Documenting hazmat risks, such as through an HMCFS, can highlight needs for attention to hazmat transport emergency planning and preparedness. This does not have to be extremely complex. Identifying that hazardous material is present can help draw attention to the potential impacts of hazmat transport on a community and the need to plan, staff, equip, and train accordingly. 2.2.2 Minimum Scenarios Definition Scenarios definition is focused on training for the safety of emergency responders and their abil- ity to provide effective response. This is grounded in part on knowing what operational require- ments are anticipated. At a minimum, identifying that hazardous materials are transported in the community can guide definition of training scenarios and incident preplanning, although scenar- ios that are developed with less specific information also may be less likely to reflect actual opera- tional conditions should they occur. 2.2.3 Maximum Scenarios Definition As additional information about hazmat transport becomes available, the ability to define op- erational scenarios and conduct incident preplanning based on traffic patterns, specific com- modities, and specific locations and conditions becomes enhanced. Training can be focused on specific risks--for example, intersections/choke points, time of day/year, and certain materials or vehicle types. By using HMCFS information to identify specific hazard scenarios, emergency planners can describe either the most likely and/or most hazardous conditions of operating en- vironments that may be expected in a community, enhancing both community protection and incident response capabilities. 2.2.4 Emergency Planning Understanding hazmat transport risks is important for all aspects of emergency planning-- prevention, protection, response, and recovery. Although planning for hazmat transport incidents can be done with any level of knowledge, effective use of resources requires sufficient knowledge to avoid misdirected efforts. As certainty increases about the hazards that may be faced, emergency planning can become more focused and specific. Strategic response goals include identifying pub- lic safety requirements, potential casualties, fatalities, property damage, business and financial losses, transportation delays, environmental harm, and community disruption associated with var- ious incidents and response strategies. HMCFS information can be used for designing emergency warning and notification systems, shelter-in-place or evacuation procedures, and necessary tech- nologies and supplies. The HMCFS can also inform tactical planning to identify where and how hazmat incidents may be most effectively handled and help assure that the resources for effective

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Select Leadership, Set Objectives, and Define Data Requirements 21 response (i.e., appropriately trained personnel and equipment) are available at the time and place they are needed. An HMCFS also can help a local agency understand whether mutual aid or other types of assistance will be required from outside agencies and provide information regarding spe- cific resource needs of that assistance. 2.2.5 Comprehensive Planning Comprehensive community plans use a broad range of information to identify, prioritize, and plan for community needs. Local and regional planners may focus on land use, development, zoning, transport corridor development, and environmental planning but fail to account for hazmat transport risks in these plans. In addition, HMCFS information--for example, truck traffic levels and patterns or truck type information--also may be useful for other community planning applications. These include local, state, or federal requirements to address hazards due to effects of hazmat transport incidents on infrastructure and environmental protection (e.g., municipal or storm water pollution prevention requirements). Since comprehensive planning can be controversial, HMCFS information should be as specific and detailed as practicable to maximize usability and prevent criticism or dismissal of its value. 2.2.6 Equipment Needs Equipment used to respond to, and recover from, hazmat incidents can include not only reusable tools and materials but also expendable supplies. These may include the following: Personal protective equipment; Chemical detection sensors; Equipment for spill confinement and containment (e.g., tractors, dozers); Equipment for neutralization, extinguishing, and dilution (e.g., hoses, pumps, nozzles, tanks, apparatus); Decontamination and cleanup equipment (e.g., showers, storage bags); Supplies for spill confinement and containment (e.g., tarps, soil, drums, plugs/patches); Neutralization, extinguishing, and dilution agents (e.g., foam, bases); and Decontamination and cleanup supplies (e.g., brushes, soaps). Stocking and maintaining adequate levels of equipment for supporting emergency re- sponse capabilities for hazmat transport incidents can be greatly enhanced by knowing how much of what type of hazardous material is being transported in a community. Locating re- sources also is dependent on where those resources are needed. Expenditure of public funds for procurement of equipment and supplies affects the ability to adequately protect respon- ders, property, the general public, and the environment. An HMCFS also can provide infor- mation to support requests for needed equipment and supplies through budgetary and grants funding processes. 2.2.7 Resource Scheduling Risks of hazmat incidents may be particularly high at certain times of the day, days of the week, or seasons of the year. These patterns often vary from location to location within a jurisdiction. Scheduling resources (e.g., personnel, apparatus, equipment, supplies, etc.) to support emergency response capabilities for potential incidents provides a greater level of community protection. Ad- justing resource levels according to risk can save scarce budget dollars but requires detailed infor- mation to ensure that the risk/resource level is consistently applied. Understanding of resource needs also will assist logistics personnel with incident response, should an incident occur.