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ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT

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Standard Color Filters for Electronics Equipment Deane B. Judd 1952 This report attempts to provide specifications for standard color fil- ters and to indicate the basis for the specifications. It recommends that signal lights employed on the control panels of electronic communications equipment be confined to three colors: red, green, and blue. These col- ors should be chosen to conform to the basic definitions of aviation red, aviation green, and aviation blue, respectively, of Federal Standard No. 3, Colors, Aeronautical Lighting, with the supplementary requirement for the green color that its chromaticity coordinates (x, y) meet the condition: y not greater than 0.667 (1x). Working standards of chromaticity are available for commonly available types of glass to produce these colors by combination with incandescent lamp light. Suitable working standards for plastic have yet to be developed. 9 pp. 5 figures no tables 7 references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 45

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Report of Working Group on Airfield Taxiway Lighting and Destination Marking Systems Paul M. Fitts 1953 This report represents opinions of a working group with regard to a project conducted by Dunlap and Associates for the Bureau of Aeronautics, U.S. Navy, with respect to airfield taxiway lighting and destination marking systems. The report covers the topics of taxiway lights, taxiway turn-off markers, destination markers, legibility, pilot opinion, and compatibility. 3 pp. no figures no tables no references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 46

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A Broad-Band-Blue Lighting System for Radar Approach Control Centers Conrad L. Kraft and Paul M. Fitts 1953 The general public recognizes the darkened room surrounding a cath- ode ray tube as a synonym for radar. This darkened room is the conven- tional solution to the problem of improving the visibility of radar targets on bright trace cathode ray tubes. This solution does give fair scope vis- ibility, but the operators must work in the dark, and operations must be discontinued whenever light is needed for maintenance of the equipment. This report describes a polychromatic system of lighting radar centers that provides improved scope visibility, permits the use of an illuminated working environment, and makes possible 24-hour radar operations. The basic principle of this lighting system is frequency sharing. A broad band of blue light (the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum) is allocated for ambient room illumination, and the remaining portion of the visi- ble spectrum is used for cathode ray tube reading and for other special purposes. 6 pp. 5 figures 1 table 2 references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418 47

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Literature Survey of Material Published Relating to Specifications of Hand-Held Binoculars Howard S. Coleman 1953 This is a survey of literature pertinent to the design of hand-held binoculars intended to be used visually. It covers over 5,000 open and classified literature items published between 1837 and 1953; the majority of the more important works were completed during the World War II years. The report covers the influence of the design properties of binocu- lars on detection problems, and the method used in making allowances for variations in such factors on the performance of binoculars is briefly presented. This method consists of the determination of the loss in range caused by a given change in one of the design characteristics of binoculars. For example, using the method described, the loss in detection range could be determined for a wide range of weather and brightness conditions that would result if the exit pupil were reduced from 7 mm to 5 mm. Similarly, losses in the range that would be caused by imperfect light transmission, stray light, and aberrations could be computed in terms of the magnitude of the imperfection. The results of the literature clearly indicate that the design of binoc- ulars has not been based on visual tasks intended to be performed using such devices. It has largely been governed by preceding designs and the limitations imposed by technological skill in producing instruments at a rate said to be necessary to meet military requirements. Accordingly, it has been concluded that the procedure of designing binoculars should be changed by making allowances for the use to which such devices are to be put Such allowances would include the limitations imposed by the characteristics of the target, the properties of medium between the target and the binocular, and the response of the human observer. This study involves the collection of specific data dealing with the responses of the human eye used in connection with the binocular. At the present time the state of knowledge in this field Is largely limited to the detection of stationary simple geometrical targets viewed under more or less uniform brightness conditions. The problems associated with the recognition of targets, targets in motion, heterogeneous brightness conditions, and the realistic military targets have been scarcely explored. 59 pp. 95 figures 5 tables 313 references Availability: AD 895151, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 48

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An Evaluation of Problems of Chart Reading Under Red Illumination Alphonse Chapanis 1953 This report describes the status of problems encountered in chart reading under red illumination. Material for the report was obtained primarily from a conference held in September 1952 at the Naval Medical Research Laboratory, U.S. Submarine Base. This report summarizes the consensus of the New London conference and includes such additional notes, discussion, and references as were supplied by various persons following the circulation of the first draft of the report of the conference. The conference began with a review of the origin of the request to consider the status of problems of chart reading under red illumination. Several distinct questions are involved, which can be classified into three major groups: (1) operational requirements; (2) visual requirements; and (3) technical requirements. 11 pp. no figures no tables 28 references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 49

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Laser Eye Effects H.G. Sperling, Editor 1968 The assignment of the working group was to study eye effects related to military and laboratory applications and to recommend safety measures, protective devices, and continuing research to support these areas. The results of the working group's efforts thus far are presented here un- der six topics: "Technical Characteristics of Lasers," J.~ Carruthers and M.S. Litwin; "Laser-Eye Pathological Effects," W.J. Geeraets; "Laser-Eye Functional Effects," H.G. Sperling; "Personnel Protective Measures," NE. Jones; "Devices for Eye Protection," R.R. McGregor, and "Eye Examina- tion and Treatment Standards," H.C. Zweng and H. Rose. 89 pp. 11 figures 3 tables 151 references Availability: AD 667494, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. . 50

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The Prototype Mail Sorting System at the Cincinnati Post Office 1972 A new mail sorting system is currently being evaluated experimentally in Cincinnati, Ohio. This system uses a combination of human mail sorting augmented by computers. Eventually, this system will be used throughout the country.This report evaluates the visual task required of the human op- erators and the noise environment within which they work and recommends several modifications of the present system. 15 pp. no figures no tables no references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 51

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Optical Properties and Visual Effects of Face Masks 1977 A working group was asked to suggest procedures for studying the optical properties and visual effects of the ~-29 mask This report is based on material presented and discussed at Ft. Rucker on July 1~15, 1976. However, the techniques of field and laboratory testing described in the report may be generally used to study a variety of face masks. The XM-29 field protective mask is designed for military use to pro- vide respiratory protection against field concentrations of all chemical and biological agents in vapor or aerosol form. The mask covers the face and is suspended by a flexible six-point harness attachment such that a contin- uous peripheral seal is made against the face of the wearer. The facepiece consists of the peripheral sealing area, the harness-attachment area, the lens area, the component-mounting area, and the nosecup area. The component-mounting area of the mask covers the forward region below the lens, the chin region, and the mandible region of the face. It contains the following components: 1. Forward-mounted acoustically transparent speech diaphragm; 2. Side-mounted adaptors for canisters, an outlet valve and resusci- tation tube assembly located at the low point of the mask and a water intake and valve assembly with internal and external portions. The nosecup is an integrally mounted, flexible assembly that accom- modates the oral-nasal configuration of the mask wearer and that contains one or more inlet valves. 6 pp. 2 figures no tables no references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 52

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The Multiple Position Letter Sorting Machine: An Evaluation of Visual, Auditory, and Human Factors Problems . . . . . 1979 At the request of the U.S. Postal Service, a working group was jointly established by the Committee on Vision and the Committee on Hear- ing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics to help evaluate visual, auditory, and human factors aspects of the Multiple Position Letter Sorting Machine. Letters are sorted at this machine by human operators who read address codes on letters displayed before them and then direct the letters to ap- propriate bins by operating a keyboard. Studies of operator performance on this machine have yielded differing estimates of operator error rates; in some cases, a high error rate was reported. The working group was asked for advise on reducing operator error rates and to review and comment on studies proposed by a U.S. Postal Service task force concerned with improving operator productivity. This report contains the working group's evaluation of each of the six actions proposed by the U.S. Postal Service task force. The working group found that operator problems have already been characterized by existing literature, and in this investigation they found no evidence of major problems of an auditory or visual nature that had not been previously identified. In the course of the study, however, it became apparent that human factors, such as motivation and the nature of the operator-machine interaction, have a major impact on operator error rates. Consequently, this report includes discussion of these human factors and recommendations for related actions. Changes in operating procedures or in the design of the operator-machine interaction might involve substantial personnel policy issues or cost considerations. The conclusions of this report are presented in terms of potential actions recommended for feasibility study by the U.S. Postal Senice. 30 pp. 1 figure no tables 42 references AYailabili~: MA 076211, National ~chniml Information Seem (~S), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 53

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Electronic Travel Aids: New Directions for Research 1986 This report explores the factors underlying the mobility process rele- vant to the design, development and use of mobility aids. Problems related to mobility and written communication account for most of the disability experienced by those who have little or no vision. Independent travel is an important goal sought by most visually impaired and blind individuals. Many hope that advances in electronics technology will yield an electronic travel aid that provides the same type of information about space as that which guides the travel of sighted pedestrians. 107 pp. 3 figures 5 tables 302 references Availability: Publication on Demand, National Academy Press, 2101 Con- stitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Request ASCII computer diskette for use in electronic readers. 54