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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE

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Visual Problems of Space Travel James W. Miller, Editor 1962 A variety of sensory and perceptual problems arise in connection with space flight, both for the occupants of space vehicles and in certain instances for support personnel. The solutions to these problems are interrelated and tremendously complex, thus requiring cooperative efforts among many scientific disciplines. This report discusses the problems of space flight insofar as they relate to the visual mechanism. The report brings together results of pertinent research in both vision and astronautics. Substantial portions of the publication, Sensory and Perceptual Problems Related to Space Flight, edited by John L. Brown, have been quoted in the report. In addition to updating the Brown report, this report presents a considerable amount of additional information regarding specific critical visual problems, as well as a recently completed, extensive bibliography of research in this field. 55 pp. no figures no tables 153 references Availability: National Technical Information Sentence (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 9 .

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Visual Requirements for Flying: Some Aspects of Reevaluation Arthur Jampolsly and Aileen Morris 1964 The assignment of the working group that produced this report was to "reevaluate the visual requirements for flying." The term requirement in this effort has been interpreted to mean the assessment and classification of the visual characteristics of military and civilian personnel qualifying to fly. Opinions were sought from operational personnel, operationally ori- ented visual specialists, and visual scientists. The problems were assembled from the different services and agencies. One of the main problem areas identified was the rapidly changing and demanding operational require- ments in flying tasks in which vision was assumed to be important. This was coupled with the scientist's trend toward extensive validation of visual standards. The report is organized into sections as follows: Statement of the Problem; Visual Classification; Role of the Visual Scientist; Grades of Visual Fitness; and Specific Recommendations. 25 pp. 1 figure 2 tables 10 references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 10

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Vision Research: Flying and Space Travel Milton ~ Whitcomb and William Benson, Editors 1968 At a two-day meeting in spring 1964, held under the auspices of the Committee on Vision, papers were presented on visual problems related to low-altitude, high-speed flight, space travel, and incapacitating effects on pilots resulting from inadvertent viewing of a nuclear detonation. This volume is a collection of these papers and represents the proceed- ings of the meeting. The papers are as follows: "Criteria for Laboratory Experiments Useful in Field Situations," W.P. Tanner, Jr.; "Visual Fitness for Space Gavel," ~ Jampolsky et al.; "The Effect of Flash Distribution and Illuminance-Level Upon the Detection of Low Intensity Light Stim- uli," R.E. Pennington; "Some Langley Research Center Plans in the Area of Visual Displays for Lunar Mission Simulation," D.R. Riley and B.M. Jaquet; "Visual Masking Using Different ~st-Stimulus Patterns," R.C. Boyle; "Sextant Sighting Performance in the Ames Midcourse Navigation and Guidance Simulator," R.J. Randle and B.N Lampkin; "Comments on Major Gordon Cooper's Observations from Orbit," J.H. Taylor; "Gemini In-Flight Visual-Acuity Experiment," S.Q. Duntley; "Operational Signifi- cance of the Blindness Problem," W.L. Jones; "The Nature of Radiation from Nuclear Weapons in Relation to Flash Blindness," J.H. Hill and G.T. Chisum; "Experimental Investigations of the Flash Blindness Prob- lem," J.L. Brown; "Methods of Preventing Flash Blindness," F.E. Barstow; "Air Force Efforts in the Field of Flash Blindness," J.F. Culver; "A Flash Blindness Indoctrination and Gaining Device," J.F. Parker, Jr.; "Vision Problems in Low-Altitude, High Speed Flight," J.W. Miller; "Geographic Orientation During Low-Altitude Flight," J.J. McGrath; "Dynamic Visual Detection Recognition," C.P. Greening; "Operational Problems Associated With Low-Altitude Flight," R.W. Bailey; and "Some Operational Aspects of Visual Problems in Low-Flying, High Speed Aircraft," R.L. Jones and J.S. Joska. 197 pp. 109 figures 16 tables 109 references Availability: National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 11

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Visual Elements in Flight Simulation John Lott Brown, Editor 1976 This report summarizes the information gathered by a working group of the Committee on Vision on visual elements in flight simulators. It recommends research topics, techniques, and strategies that should receive more attention. Flight simulators have now been in use for many years and their value has been amply proven. Although many of todays simulators are very expensive, they can pay for themselves by decreasing the cost and increasing the safety of learning to fly complex and expensive modern aircraft. Some aspects of aircraft control depend on an exterior view from the aircraft of the outside visual world. Gaining in these aspects of flight in a simulator therefore requires that the visual world be simulated to the extent that cues derived from it need to be employed by the pilot. There are a number of maneuvers that cannot be performed without direct visual contact under normal circumstances in commercial as well as in military aviation. The importance of including a simulation of the external world is now acknowledged. Unfortunately, there is currently no solid scientific basis for cataloguing visual cues with respect to their importance in aircraft control As a consequence, current efforts to create appropriate visual simulations run the gamut from efforts toward almost complete replication of the visual world to highly schematized, two-dimensional perspective displays on cathode-ray tubes. 12 pp. no figures no tables 20 references Availability: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol. 47, No. 9, pp. 913-924, 1976. 12

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Vision Research for Flight Simulation: Report on a Workshop on Simulation of Low-Level Flight Whitman Richard and Key Dismukes, Editors 1982 This report was prepared on the basis of a workshop on issues in vision research on flight-training simulators, particularly those using computer image generation techniques. Examples of research strategies by individual authors appear as appendix papers to this report. Appendices A through F provide examples of research areas and ap- proaches that might help elucidate several long-range issues confronted in visual simulation. Primarily, emphasis is given to low-level flight, in which extraction of visual information from terrain features is crucial but little understood. Several strategies are suggested for exploring which vi- sual features should be used in low-level flight: systematic condensation of opinions, particularly those of pilots (Appendix A), geometric analysis of potentially usable terrain information (Appendix B), and psychophysical analysis of visual processing modalities (Appendices C and D). Appendix E examines equipment requirements for display of whatever visual infor- mation is chosen. It also addresses characteristics of visual displays that limit the kind of information that can be displayed. Thus, Appendix E complements the other appendices and is applicable to visual simulation of any flight environment. Several authors have suggested particular lines of research that could be followed within their paradigms. The report also summarizes the theoretical perspective and working assumptions of the strategies covered to illustrate their power and limita- tions. An extended example is given to show how the strategies might be combined to analyze visual information requirements for low-level flight. The complementarily of these research strategies is emphasized. 99 pp. 8 figures 1 table 134 references Avaiiabilay: Publication on Demand, National Academy Press, 2101 Con- stitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. 13

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