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TRANSPORTATION

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The Visual Factors in Automobile Driving: Summary Report of a Symposium 1958 In the Armed Forces in the 1950s more deaths were caused by auto accidents than any other cause; auto accidents were also the leading cause of loss of time in the hospital. The prevention of these deaths and injuries was considered a fertile field for preventive medicine. A symposium was held to discuss visual factors in automobile driving and to suggest selection criteria for automobile drivers, including visual qualifications. Because of the large amount of material to be covered in the outlining of the visual task the discussion omitted reference to accident prevention, visual standards, driver licensing, fatigue, alcohol (including the effects of eye diseases), and defects in visual capabilities. Since vision is depen- dent upon light, variations in the intensity, spectral distribution, scattering, reflection and other physical characteristics were carefully considered. During almost all of the driving task the eye is not in a fixed position in relationship to the objects from which it is gleaning information. The motion of the automobile and its driver produce changes in visual abilities over the static situation; some abilities are enhanced, some reduced. The framework within which the visual factors were considered focused on the following visual factors: 1. Detection awareness of the presence of something. 2. Recognition recognition of the object. 3. Dynamic relationships significance of position, speed, and direc- tion of travel. 25 pp. no figures no tables 71 references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. 77

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Visual Factors in Transportation Systems ~9 A symposium was held in spring of 1969, bringing together people experienced in day-to-day operations in transportation systems with persons doing research on visual problems involved in these systems. The purpose of this juxtaposition was to encourage an exchange of information among operational people, managers of research, and research workers. It was hoped that a firsthand account of visual problems by operators would call attention to any problems that might be slighted in current research efforts and that this exchange of information might have some salutary effect on plans for future research. The papers presented in this volume represent the proceedings of the symposium. In section one, The Highway Transportation System, the fol- lowing papers are presented: "Visual Problems of Pluck and Bus Drivers," W.C. Neidig; "visual Problems in Automobile Dnving," W.M. Heath; "Fac- tors in Visibility and Legibility of Highway Signs and Markings," T.W. Forbes; "Requirements for Automobile Exterior Lighting," R.G. Martimer; and "Factors in Highway lighting," D.M. Finch. In section two, The Air Transportation System, the following papers are presented: "Selected Vi- sual Problems of an Airline Pilot," H.W. Orlady; "Visual Problems of the Air Traffic Controller," P.N Nelson; "Some Display Concepts in Air Marc Control," D.W. Connolly; "The Helicopter in High Density Traffic," J.K Crosley, et aL; "Measurement of Height and Distance Information Pro- vided Pilots by the Extra-Cockpit Visual Scene," C.L~ Kraft; and "Visual Illusions in Aircraft Accidents," D.G. Pitts. 131 pp. 38 figures 6 tables 135 references Availably: PB 1~14, National Technical Information Seem (~S), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 78