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VISUAL DISPLAYS

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Standards to be Employed in Research on Visual Displays 1947 (revised 1950) In this report, visual displays are defined to include all methods of transmitting information to the human being through the visual sense. Re- search in visual displays is defined to include investigation of visual response at three levels: (1) simple sensory discrimination; (2) recognition and iden- tification of familiar patterns such as words, numbers, or symbols; and (3) interpretation, involving meaning and understanding as demonstrated by appropriate action, such as verbalization of the displayed information or manipulation of control levers and switches. In order to obtain comparability of visual display research data from different laboratories, and thereby to increase the efficiency and value of re- search in this area, some standardization was needed with regard to subject groups, units of measurement, fixed values of stimuli not under investiga- tion, and methods of experimental measurement. The subcommittee that produced this report agreed that the standards it recommended should be circulated for comment and later published so as to be available to workers irt this field. However, these recommendations are considered as tentative and subject to considerable revision before they become an established guide to research workers. It was not the purpose of the subcommittee to specify standards or stimulus characteristics that result in optimum visual displays. Such specification must await the results of current and future research. Likewise, the subcommittee was not concerned with standards for the design of experiments or the quality of experimental work. Particular consideration was given to the avoidance of standards that would unduly hamper or stereotype research efforts. 4 pp. 2 figures no tables no references Availability: Committee on Vision, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Wash- ington, D.C. 20418. g7

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Illumination and Visibility of Radar and Sonar Displays Robert H. Brown, Editor 1958 This report on illumination and visibility of radar and sonar displays is the result of a symposium held in conjunction with the Committee on Vision's 37th annual meeting. World War II was fought using radar scopes in darkness or semidarkness. The flashlight was an indispensable source of illumination. Since then, different methods for illuminating electronic displays have developed rapidly. The common objective of a mushrooming group of techniques has been to provide adequate illumination in the area around a display without interfering with its essential function. One example, expressed in economic terms, illustrates the significance of orderly and planned communication. In a certain large installation, elec- trical power of 12 w per sq ft produces an illuminance of 3 ft c. In another installation, only 0.65 w per sq ft is required for approximately the same illuminance. Does improved visibility of the displays in the first installation Justin the greater initial cost and the increased operating expenditures? The answer to this question, and to many similar questions, requires communi- cation between researchers familiar with the different installations and also between researchers with different scientific and engineering backgrounds. Even more marked than the growth of methods for illumination has been the accelerating invention of new displays. These include transpar- ent phosphors, direct-view storage tubes, electroluminescent panels, bright displays, and new displays. At the same time, there has been research concerned with the effect of variation in basic parameters upon the use of presently available and widetr used displays. For cathode-ray tubes, grid bias and receiver gain have received the most attention. Marked interest has been shown in other factors. This research has been directed toward the objective of utilizing displays more effectively in an environment with an ever-increasing illuminance. The symposium on which this report is based originated in the 1957 Human Engineenng Conference sponsored by the Office of Naval Re- search in ~Isa. During the symposium the first panel discussant noted the value of cross-fertilization between disciplines. Cross-fertilization requires a common medium and, in this case, the medium is the operational setting. The symposium was organized on the assumption that communication on other than an accidental (or informal) basis is essential to the most adequate solution of common problems. Representation at the symposium 98

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was sought from leading workers in four areas. It was convenient, there- fore, to schedule presentation, in four subject-matter sessions: operational requirements for cathode tubes and displays in relation to illumination problems; methods for controlling ambient illumination; display require- ments imposed by visual factors; and new techniques under development. A discussion session concluded the symposium. 210 pp. 99 figures 7 tables 65 references Availability: National Ethnical Information Service ~IS), 5~5 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 99

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An Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Displays H.W. Leibowitz and R.L. Sulzer 1965 The purpose of this document is to evaluate three-dimensional (3- D) visual displays. It is assumed that the desirability of a 3-D display, as opposed to other equivalent display types, will be strongly dependent on the particular system under consideration. The current attempt to as- sess possible advantages and disadvantages of 3-D displays in relation to present and future systems is not concerned, therefore, with the advis- abilit~r of recommending a 3-D display to the reader, who alone has the critical information regarding specific systems requirements. It is believed, however, that provision of general background material will be of some ser- vice. Uken together with detailed information regarding the application in question, it may provide the necessary basis for practical system decisions. Furthermore, it is hoped that a stimulus may be provided to the research that has been revealed by this study as urgently needed if more effective equipment is to be designed for use by the human operator. The term 3-D display is defined here to include volumetric and stereo- scopic devices that are viewed with two eyes and produce depth impressions principally because of retinal disparity. Other sorts of displays of three- coordinate information have been in use for many years, most often taking the form of two flat-plane views. These more conventional presentations will no doubt continue to find many applications, and detailed discussions of their design and use aspects may be found in several of the listed ref- erences. However, the immediate concern is with the relatively new 3-D displays that are currently under development and study by a score of manufacturers and research and development laboratones. 35 pp. 5 figures 1 table 63 references Availability: AD 45784918, National Technical Information Service ~IS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. 100

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Video Display Terminals and Vision of Workers: Summary and Overview of a Symposium Barbara S. Brown, Key Dismukes, and Edward J. Rinalducci 1982 This summary discusses issues raised at a symposium on vision and video display terminal (VDT) work, held at the request of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Symposium participants critically reviewed laboratory studies of visual functions and field surveys of visual complaints of VDT operators to determine what conclusions can be drawn about the prevalence, severity, causes of, and possible remedies for reported difficulties. Although speakers' perspectives differed, a number of points appeared to gain consensus: (1) Properly designed epidemiological studies com- panng the incidence of visual problems in VDT operators with that in non-VDT workers are needed. (2) Visual issues are closely interrelated with ergonomic and job design variables, and the use of multivariate sta- tistical analysis is necessary to determine what specific aspects of work involving VDTs may contribute to visual and other complaints. (3) No scientifically valid study has established that VDT use causes harm, in the sense of damage, to the visual system. (4) Existing knowledge indicates a number of measures that could be taken to improve worker comfort and performance. (5) Surveys of radiation emissions from VDIt indicate that levels of radiation are far below U.S. occupational exposure standards. (6) Standards should be based on research Differing opinions on whether setting standards is useful and appropriate point to the need for caution in this area. Needs for further research are identified. 19 pp. no figures no tables 13 references Availability: Behaviour and Infonna~on Technology Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 121- 140, 1982. 101

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Video Displays, Work, and Vision 1983 . . This report by a panel of the Committee on Vision primarily concerns issues involving vision and the visual system. However, because factors that affect operators' comfort and performance cannot be elucidated by analyzing only the optical characteristics of video display terminals (VDTs), relevant human factors and psychosocial issues are also considered. Because much of the concern about the possibility of radiation hazards has been based on misinformation, the results of surveys were analyzed in which the levels of radiation have been measured and compared with those levels with ambient levels of radiation emitted by human-made and natural sources and with current standards for occupational exposure. The question of what is an acceptable level of radiation exposure was not reopened. Whether there is evidence that ocular diseases or abnormalities, including cataracts, are associated with VDT-related work was discussed. The report only briefly discussed the possibility of disorders that do not involve vision (i.e., effects on pregnancy and skin rashes because there are few published data and because of lack of appropriate expertise). In the course of its study, the panel reviewed diverse literature, in- cluding reports of field surveys of VDT workers and VDT work places, laboratory studies of visual functions in VDT work tasks, news articles, and pamphlets prepared by labor unions concerned with VDT issues. The panel also draws upon the substantial technical literatures on visual func- tion, image qualifier, lighting design, ergonomic design, and industrial and organizational psychology. 273 pp. 31 figures 21 tables 401 references AYailabili~: Distnbution Service, National Academy Press, 2101 Consti- tution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. 102

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Motion Sickness, Visual Displays, and Armored Vehicle Design: Proceedings of a Conference 1989 A worldng group was asked to review the operational requirements of anticipated low-profile armored vehicles and to determine the underlying visualhestibular research issues relevant to the appropriate design of visual display system within those vehicles. 1b accomplish these goals, the working group convened a small conference to review what is known about motion sickness symptoms arising from the response of the oculomotor system to conflicting visual and vestibular cues. Participants reviewed what is known about research in this area with specific reference to environmental conditions likely to be encountered in low-profile armored vehicles. Eight specialists from the fields of visual psy- chophysics, neuroscience, and human factors engineering met for two days at Brandeis University in January 1988. Participants essentially provided a tutorial on the different methodological approaches to visuaVvestibular issues relevant to the design of electronic visual displays. The edited proceedings of the discussion, together with highlights developed by the working group, are the contents of this report. 126 pp. 26 figures 11 tables 21 references Availability: U.S. Army Laboratory Command, Ballistic Research Labora- to~y, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Contractor report BRL-CR- 629. 103

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