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20 ridership at stops for each trip and an Automated Passenger How do the TEAP Framework Counting (APC) system is being proposed to do the counting, elements relate? then there must be a corresponding system requirement for As illustrated in Figure 2, the TEAP Framework elements the APC system to count boardings and alightings at each stop build on the models, analysis, and reports generated in the by trip identifier. The SE process ensures that the requirement previous stage. The Framework value is greater than the sum is described in the design and consequently implemented in of its parts. It also improves the quality and completeness of the the software and that data is collected, stored, and reported in downstream products. A well-developed business case helps a format that supports its use as a performance measure. The ensure that a project gets funded and that the funding is at steps prescribed by the SE process ensure a structured approach the appropriate level. It also helps ensure that the plan and to track customer needs throughout the development stages resources are available to gather baseline data needed to prove of an IT/ITS project. that the project made a difference during the PIA. Information U.S. DOT recognized the potential benefit of the SE from the systems engineering steps can help decision makers approach for ITS projects and included requirements for the advance a project effectively through funding "decision gates." use of the SE process in the FHWA Final Rule 940/FTA Pol- During the course of this project more transit agencies began icy on ITS Architecture and Standards that was enacted on focusing on IT project management and governance of these January 8, 2001. projects. IT staff began to realize the importance of creating a solid foundation on which to make good business decisions Post-Implementation Analysis (PIA) on funding, operating, and maintaining technology deploy- Overview ments. In order to show a solid return on investment and measure success, it is essential to understand the connections, Enterprise Post-Implementation Analysis (PIA) bottlenecks, and stresses across the enterprise. The foundation or Post Implementation Review (PIR), Architecture Planning (EAP) of this information is represented in the EA. Therefore, mak- Post- Implementation as it is commonly called in the IT field, Business Case Methodology ing the EA process less costly and time consuming became a Analysis is conducted at the final stages or right need of the TEAP Framework. Systems after a project has been completed. Funding Engineering "The purpose of the PIR is to evaluate how successfully the project objectives TEAP Framework Wiki Overview have been met and how effective the The medium that presented the TEAP Framework needed project management practices were in keeping the project on to address three major areas--audience presentation, inter- track" (3). This information can be used to improve project activity, and collaborative environment. The specific needs management processes and guide where the next set of invest- that were addressed included: ments should be made. The PIR and associated ROI analyses can also help demonstrate how the project made a difference Develop guidance on the TEAP that targeted multiple audi- and identify lessons learned. ences (without intimidating any of them by the size of the The PIR is not the testing and verification activities that are document). typically performed in a project acceptance or closeout phase. Present the material using a medium that was logical, easy to For example, an Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) system use, and allowed for seamlessly showing the relations among may have to be accepted from a vendor if it performs accord- the elements (and linking to external resources). ing to the requirements in the Request for Proposals (RFP), Provide the industry with a site where collaboration and passes the test plan, and satisfies the SE verification process. information navigation was intuitive and easy to use while However, the system may not perform the way the users preventing spamming and misuse of the site. want. Perhaps the business changed or the project was speci- fied ambiguously and/or incorrectly in the RFP and System The Framework and element descriptions, best practices and Requirements. The PIA plan is also sometimes called a Vali- resources needed a medium where the relationships between dation Plan. the elements were visible, and the connections to additional In summary, the PIR occurs after the IT/ITS system has resources and tools were seamless. A website by its nature been incorporated into the business and assesses how well proved to be the best medium to present the information. The the project meets the users' needs, what needs to be done materials were accessible and various audiences could easily next, and how well the implementation process went. find guidance that was commensurate with their knowledge Developing and sharing lessons learned can continuously and responsibilities. Yet in recognition of the changing nature improve the agency's project acquisition and management of the topic, and the need for transit professionals to collab- processes. orate, a user-driven website was needed. A wiki allows users