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28 The reference architecture also contains aggregated domains In addition, the router "device" category included in each where subject areas and information views are logically grouped layer is a way to show which technology entities are connected together including: to each network. This convention provides a way to depict and analyze physical network models. However, the relation- Transit Domain Information--aggregates information from ship between applications and technologies shows the logical the four modes: rail, bus, paratransit, and vertical (elevators/ relationship among the enterprise elements. This relationship escalators) is essential to determine performance, capacity, and critical Integration Information--which includes cross-cutting infrastructures that support corporate business processes. information, executive, and customer information The Reference TEAP does not include a category for each Core Data--which contains critical information for mul- personal computer in an agency. Typically, agencies have stan- tiple processes dard configurations for their equipment, servers, and other technologies; these can be stored and reused to describe the The core data is critical to operations of the business. It con- technology layer using the seat management convention in tains fleet information, transit gazetteer and network informa- the model. Seat management is used to describe these types tion, service schedules and operational performance, incidents, of configurations (and the number of PCs with this configu- and more. ration) and is associated with a location of a "center." The PC may be used in the same way, but associated with a field loca- tion. The mobile data terminal (MDT) is defined as the on- Applications Layer Overview board computer. To that end, there may be more than one The applications layer includes three major entities: an appli- device on-board designated as an MDT. In developing one of cation family, applications, and databases. An application fam- the pilots, we reviewed an approach for documenting servers ily contains one or more applications, and applications include and personal computers located at transit stations. The rela- tionship between the seat management (center) and personal one or more databases. A database may be used by one or more computer (field) is a means of tracking the configurations applications. Additionally, an application may exchange infor- and software licenses of field equipment. mation with another application. Because there are many off-the-shelf and custom tools that transit agencies use, the Reference TEAP designates a set of TEAP Solutions for categories and types of tools in lieu of commercial or open Fare Management software products. The list is based on the TCIP system types Solutions in the fare management segment are described as well as common systems that are available off-the-shelf. for four alternative configurations. The entities and relation- The list is documented in the wiki at: http://tcrp-teap.pbworks. ships are explicitly defined for the four EA layers--business com/TEAP_Applications. processes, information, applications, and technologies. In reviewing a number of representative fare management con- Technology Layer Overview figurations, we found that the relationships among TEAP Business Processes and Information Sets are fairly stable from The technology layer contains information on the tech- implementation solution to implementation solution, partic- nologies that store data and software, network equipment, ularly since they revolve around the Financial Management sensors/performance monitoring devices, control equipment, function. On the other hand, the solutions (and connections) and other devices. The TEAP metadata model creates classes of for applications and technology may differ greatly depending technology types that are resident in different environments. on bundling of application functions, and adoption of meth- The environments correspond to the National ITS Architec- ods, services, and technologies. The term "solution architec- ture System and center domains: vehicle/mobile, field, center, ture" is used in the IT industry to describe different ways of and traveler. In addition, communications is a connection implementing applications and technologies to enable simi- among these technology environments. The classes of tech- lar business processes and generate comparable information nologies include the following: sets. The approach used to generate alternative solutions for the TEAP was to model four configurations that are typical or Communications--Network emerging in the transit industry for the fare management area. Center--Data center, other technologies, seat management, The four solutions are: storage, route, security Vehicle--MDT (computer), other technologies (router) Closed Fare Management System (with partners) Field--Router, personal computer, other technologies, Closed Fare Management System (used by partners) security, server, storage Mobile Fare Payment System Traveler--personal computer, PDA Open Fare Payment System

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29 Table 6. Streamlined processes for developing an "as-is" transit enterprise architecture. Step Streamlined Processes for the TEAP 1 Describe Locations. Identify physical locations of entities owned or used by your organization. This includes passenger facilities, third party fare outlets and information kiosks, transit vehicle and equipment depots, and staff facilities. 2 Describe the Organization. This is a list of the organizational structure and staff of your organization. The positions in the organization chart will be linked to their roles and responsibilities within the business processes. 3 Complete Mission, Vision, Goals. Describe the mission, vision, goals. 4 Review and Edit the Business Process View. At a minimum, search and replace "AGENCY" for the name of your agency. 5 Review and Edit the Information View. At a minimum, search and replace "AGENCY" for the name of your agency. 6 Application Inventory. Collect an inventory of your applications. 7 Technology Equipment Inventory. Collect an inventory of your servers, networks, communications devices, and other technologies. The models were developed so that an agency may grab the describe the gaps, processes, data flows, and organizational templates and content of a model, revise the names of processes changes that will be affected by the transition. and information to map to their organization's terminology, relate the application categories and types to their application Streamlined EA Process products, and assign the specific technology vendor to each of the technology components. The streamlined process was developed for describing a spe- Each fare management solution is described by an enterprise cific "as-is" (current) EA (see Table 6). It describes how to get model (with the key components of each level and their con- started, that is, how to begin to populate an EA that describes nections) and a spreadsheet with several sheets that describe a specific organization. The processes to maintain, update, and the entities or the relationships (associations) between entities. transition to a future architecture are left as a future research The spreadsheet files contain a separate sheet (tab) for business effort. Moreover, the "to-be" or future architecture is typically process, information, application, and technology views. In recommended on a per-project basis since it requires alter- addition, there are sheets that relate the business processes natives and business case analyses to understand costs and to information sets, another sheet that relates the business impacts. The addition of solutions enables migration to new processes to application categories and types, and so on. models, applications, and technologies as they evolve in the These fare management solution spreadsheets and tem- industry (e.g., IT, ITS, and transit). plates may be used as building blocks to apply to your orga- Details including templates, purpose, examples, and meth- nization's EA. Moreover, because emerging fare management ods for each step are described in the TEAP Guidance pages. solutions are described, an agency migrating from a Closed Each step includes a page where practitioners may provide addi- System to an Open Payment System can use both models and tional guidance, assistance, and tools to address new challenges.