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40 APPENDIX A Guidance for Transit Managers

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41 TABLE OF CONTENTS 42 1 Introduction 42 2 TEAP Framework Executive Summary 42 2.1 What does the Framework do? 42 2.1.1 What are the TEAP Framework elements? 43 2.1.2 Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) and Enterprise Architecture (EA) Overview 43 2.1.3 Business Case Methodology Overview 44 2.1.4 Funding Overview 44 2.1.5 Systems Engineering Overview 44 2.1.6 Post-Implementation Analysis Overview 44 2.1.7 How do the TEAP Framework elements relate? 45 2.1.8 Growing Need for TEAP Framework Knowledge & Skills 45 2.2 Manager's Roles & Checklists 45 2.2.1 Key Roles for Managers 46 2.2.2 EA/EAP Checklist for Managers 47 2.2.3 Business Case Methodology Checklist for Managers 47 2.2.4 Funding Checklist for Managers 47 2.2.5 Systems Engineering Checklist for Managers 48 2.2.6 Post-Implementation Analysis Checklist for Managers 48 3 References

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42 1 Introduction gies, to help them better meet their enterprise business process needs and corporate objectives. The Framework will also help Transit has become more and more dependent on the suc- guide an agency's IT/ITS planning process, improve its under- cessful operation and interaction of its automated systems. standing of risks, better manage the project implementation Managers in all areas of transit are incorporating Information effort, validate and verify compliance with its needs, and mea- Technology (IT) and ITS systems to improve system perfor- sure results and benefits. mance and provide critical information for effective decision- Specifically, the TEAP Framework guides transit in: making and the efficient provision of transit service. Those systems increasingly interact with systems managed by other Planning how information, services, and technology will areas within the transit organization, necessitating a higher connect across an enterprise to support business processes, degree of systems thinking and planning. In general, success- solve problems, and measure performance; ful transit IT/ITS projects can no longer be implemented with Promoting information sharing across agency and institu- only the attention of the IT department. tional barriers; Many of the issues associated with poor implementations of Ensuring that IT/ITS projects are defined and staged in a technology projects can be avoided if transit managers from all way that ensures best value and supports successful project business areas step forward and take a leadership role in ensur- implementation, operations, and maintenance; ing that their organization and the IT/ITS project teams imple- Ensuring that the benefits and costs of proposed IT/ITS proj- ment the key principles and elements of the Transit Enterprise ects are understood across the project's lifecycle (including Architecture and Planning (TEAP) Framework. operations and maintenance) and that resources are available This Guidance for Managers addresses: to support the program; Specifying IT/ITS projects to maximize the IT/ITS invest- A TEAP Framework Executive Summary (Section 2.1) that ment decisions across the organization; briefly describes the benefits of the Framework and its five Ensuring that IT/ITS projects meet stakeholder needs: elements, and provides a few examples of how the elements requirements are explicitly described, risks are identified interrelate and increase their value to transit. Read this sec- and mitigated, and the system development process is man- tion to gain a better understanding of how using the Tran- aged to ensure that correct operations and requirements are sit Enterprise Architecture and Planning Framework can met; and improve your agency's IT/ITS project outcomes. Describing the leadership and processes that ensure that Manager's Roles & Checklists (Section 2.2), which provides the organization's IT group supports and extends corpo- guidance on manager's roles and steps that transit man- rate strategies and objectives. agers can undertake to help improve the likelihood of suc- cess of IT/ITS projects and to improve the value of transit IT/ITS investments. Use this section to help assess issues 2.1.1 What are the TEAP Framework elements? and to point to specific actions that can be taken to improve The TEAP Framework comprises five elements, shown in the process of selecting, defining and implementing IT/ITS Figure 1. They provide tools for planning, developing, deploy- projects. ing, and evaluating the systems and technologies that best meet an organization's objectives. These key elements of the 2 TEAP Framework Framework are: Executive Summary Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) and Enterprise The goal of the Transit Enterprise Architecture and Planning Architecture (EA) development process (developing the (TEAP) Framework project is to provide transit agencies with blueprints); a roadmap, based on a Transit Enterprise Architecture and Business Case Methodology (how well does this project fit Planning Framework, to successfully implement IT/ITS sys- into the your stated priorities; what are the risks, benefits tems that meet their business needs. Among other benefits, the and costs, and estimated return on investment [ROI]); Framework and its elements help an agency leverage its IT/TS Funding (how to pay for IT/ITS projects); investments and maximize their value to the organization. System Engineering for helping to design and manage an IT/ITS Project implementation; and Post-Implementation Analysis to assess whether the imple- 2.1 What does the Framework do? mentation met project and agency goals and achieved a The Framework helps transit professionals understand the meaningful (estimated) ROI and to review the project financial, operational and management impacts of technolo- implementation experience for lessons learned.

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43 policy statements, procedures, inventories or other pieces of information. The term used to describe these is "artifact." Enterprise The Enterprise Architecture is a dynamic repository of knowl- Architecture edge, in an organized framework. By providing an overview of Planning (EAP) the current status and the future desired state of the business and technology, it facilitates the coherent planning and devel- opment of technology purchases ahead of time, to optimize the Post- Business Case use of resources and the value of the investments. Implementation Methodology The Enterprise Architecture links projects to business Analysis strategy by associating critical business processes, organi- zational resources, and service performance with support- ing applications, data, and technologies. EA models can generate insight into cost savings and productivity increases because they link resources and costs that apply to the busi- Systems Engineering Funding ness, information used for decision making, applications and technologies. Put into practice, this element might show how cuts in staffing may impact an IT system's effec- tiveness since technology enhancements may not be effi- cient if there are limited staff resources to support the information needed by the IT solutions. For example, a bus Figure 1. TEAP Framework elements. annunciation system relies on maintaining a high quality bus stop inventory with accurate locations of each bus stop by trip/pattern/route. If there are cuts in staff or resources, Looking at each element in more detail clarifies the role each and the inventory is not maintained then the Annuncia- plays and how they work together to create a successful TEAP tion System will not provide accurate information to riders. Framework. The EA models the business needs and shows the linkages to the information sources, applications, and infrastructure components. 2.1.2 Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) Guidance for transit managers related to EA/EAP is included and Enterprise Architecture (EA) Overview in Section 2.2.2. The Enterprise Architecture Plan- Enterprise ning process is a set of activities used Architecture Planning (EAP) 2.1.3 Business Case Methodology Overview Post- Implementation to develop the Enterprise Architecture Business Case Methodology Analysis models, diagrams and descriptions. A Business Case Methodology Enterprise Systems The process relies on stakeholder Funding Architecture Planning (EAP) (BCM) is a formal analysis used to Engineering input to document the agency's cur- Post- Implementation Business Case Methodology justify and capture the reasoning for Analysis rent performance measures, business initiating a project. processes, data, applications, and tech- Systems Funding The business case typically reviews Engineering nologies, reflecting the organization's "as-is" architecture. and verifies that (1): Next, a "to-be" architecture is developed that documents where the organization wants to be with respect to its busi- The proposed investment has value and importance ness in the future. A four to five year horizon works best The project will be properly managed here. It consists of the corporate mission, goals, objectives, The organization has an adequate plan and the capability and the business processes, data, applications, and tech- to deliver the benefits nologies that are needed to support that vision. The third The organization's resources are working on the highest step describes the "gap" between the current ("as-is") and value opportunities the future ("to-be") and how to close it. The Enterprise Projects with inter-dependencies are undertaken in the Architectures, both the "as-is" and "to-be" architectures, optimum sequence. are composed of four or five models (Business, Data, Appli- cations and Technology, plus in some approaches a Perfor- Guidance for transit managers related to BCM is included mance model) that are depicted in one or more diagrams, in Section 2.2.3.

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44 2.1.4 Funding Overview US DOT recognized the potential benefit of the systems engineering approach for ITS projects and included require- IT/ITS Project Funding discusses Enterprise ments for the use of the systems engineering process in the approaches for obtaining and making Architecture Planning (EAP) FHWA Final Rule/FTA Final Policy on Architecture and Stan- Post- use of various sources of funding for Implementation Business Case Methodology dards that was enacted on January 8, 2001. Analysis IT/ITS projects. Like IT projects in Guidance for transit managers related to SE is included in general, transportation IT and ITS Systems Funding Engineering Section 2.2.5. projects are delivered through public leveraging options like bond financ- ing, public-private partnerships, co- 2.1.6 Post-Implementation Analysis Overview mingled funding, and a variety of Federal, state and local Post-implementation analysis or funding sources. Enterprise Architecture Post Implementation Review (PIR), Planning (EAP) Transit agencies are using many of these financing mecha- Post- as it is commonly called in the IT field, nisms to access the various sources of capital for IT/ITS projects. Implementation Analysis Business Case Methodology is conducted at the final stages or right Historically, buy (pay-as-you-go), borrow (issue bonds), or after a project has been completed. lease were the primary financing mechanisms used by transit Systems Engineering Funding agencies. Since the 1990's, there has been more creative use of "The purpose of the PIR is to evaluate these traditional mechanisms and the introduction of public- how successfully the project objec- private partnerships. Financing mechanisms, particularly tives have been met and how effective the project manage- four categories--debt mechanisms, capital leasing financing, ment practices were in keeping the project on track." (2) This equity and partnerships, and credit enhancements--have information can be used to improve project management been important. processes and guide where the next set of investments should Based on a modest survey of transit agencies, it was found be made. The PIR and associated ROI analyses can also help that no one financing method works for all situations, rather demonstrate how the project made a difference and identify financing decisions need to be tailored to the specific project, lessons learned. region and financial circumstance. The PIR is not the testing and verification activities that are Guidance for transit managers related to IT/ITS funding is typically performed in a project acceptance or closeout phase. included in Section 2.2.4. For example, an Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) system may have to be accepted from a vendor if it performs accord- ing to the requirements in the Request for Proposal (RFP), it 2.1.5 Systems Engineering Overview passes the test plan, and satisfies the systems engineering ver- Systems Engineering (SE) is a disci- ification process. The system, however, may not perform the Enterprise pline that helps ensure that customer Architecture Planning (EAP) way the users want. Perhaps the business changed or the proj- Post- needs are implemented in the system Business Case ect was specified ambiguously and/or incorrectly in the RFP Implementation Analysis Methodology that is developed. Customer needs are and System Requirements. The post-implementation analy- defined by those who have a vested sis plan is also sometimes called a Validation Plan. Systems Engineering Funding interest in the system, such as a user, a In summary, the PIR occurs after the IT/ITS system has manager, or someone impacted by the been incorporated into the business and assesses how well the operations of the system (e.g., recipi- project meets the users' needs, what needs to be done next, ent of information or process coordination partner). and how well the implementation process went. Developing Customer needs drive the system requirements, or what the and sharing lessons learned can continuously improve the system should do. For example, if there is a need to measure agency's project acquisition and management processes. ridership at stops for each trip and an Automated Passenger Guidance for transit managers related to Post Implemen- Counting (APC) system is being proposed to do the counting, tation Analysis can be found in Section 2.2.6. then there must be a corresponding system requirement for the APC system to count boardings and alightings at each stop by 2.1.7 How do the TEAP Framework trip identifier. The systems engineering process ensures that elements relate? the requirement is described in the design and consequently implemented in the software and that data is collected, stored, Figure 2 below shows the TEAP Framework and how the and reported in a format that supports its use as a performance framework elements relate to each other at a high level. By measure. The steps prescribed by the Systems Engineering using the Framework elements together, the value of the process ensure a structured approach to track customer needs Framework is much greater than the sum of its parts. For throughout the development stages of an IT/ITS project. example, the information in the Enterprise Architecture can

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45 EAP Enterprise Architecture INPUTS Performance Potential P o Vision / Mission / Goals Business P r Projects Internal Data External / Regional Applications BUSINESS CASE Technology METHODOLOGY IT/ITS Strategic Plan FUNDING Budget Process Operating & Capital :: Programs POST- IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS Approved A ANALYSIS ENGINEERING P Projects KEY Project Flow Supporting Information Flow Figure 2. How Framework elements relate. improve the speed of developing the Business Case Method- 2.2 Manager's Roles & Checklists ology and the project requirements in the Systems Engineer- ing process. It also improves the quality and completeness of This section is intended to assist transit managers in enabling those products. A well developed Business Case helps ensures their staff and the transit organization to effectively acquire, that a project gets funded and that the funding is at the appro- assess and enhance IT/ITS systems. A general set of roles for priate level. It also helps ensure that the plan and resources transit managers are included as well as checklists that are spe- are available to gather baseline data needed to prove that the cific to each of the TEAP Framework elements. project made a difference during the post-implementation analysis. Information from the systems engineering steps can 2.2.1 Key Roles for Managers help decision makers advance a project effectively through funding "decision gates." Key roles for all the members of the transit management team are to: 2.1.8 Growing Need for TEAP Framework Ensure a common vision for the organization and commu- Knowledge & Skills nicate goals and priorities. If vision and goals are not clear, As competition for limited resources increases, the need scarce IT resources may be spent on less critical projects. for skills in building a good business case, arranging funding, Ensure that IT/ITS systems support the agency's opera- using EAP to improve the value of the investment, managing tional needs. The organization's goals should be one of projects with good systems engineering practices, and prov- the drivers of the IT/ITS project's goals, objectives, and ing value with post-implementation analysis, will increase. requirements.

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46 Be champions of integration and an enterprise-wide per- about data), data security, preservation, and appropriate spective when IT/ITS projects are being developed. Without access. management championship of an enterprise-wide perspec- Support the development of an Enterprise-wide Data tive, the focus of staff and projects will be more "stove-piped," Architecture by providing staff support to help with the resulting in a loss of resource leveraging, missed issues that definition of current and future data requirements, data cause problems later in the project life cycle, and the loss of dependencies with other systems and groups in transit, potential efficiencies. and other needed information. Provide oversight and encourage staff as they implement Ask staff if data standards are available, or can be devel- technology solutions that take into consideration enterprise- oped agency-wide, that streamline data maintenance wide needs and issues. Staff will likely need both training activities. and encouragement as they adopt new system development Only approve data set development in your organiza- approaches. tion after ascertaining throughout the organization if The transit General Manager and the head of Information other requirements can be incorporated that may allow Technology have particular responsibility for ensuring that cost sharing and that maximize the value of the effort an integrated, agency-wide approach is taken for developing and data to the organization. As the enterprise-wide data and information systems solutions. (3) Data Architecture is developed, this review and coordi- nation task gets quicker and easier. Create a grass-roots advocacy for key data sets by advocat- 2.2.2 EA/EAP Checklist for Managers ing data "owners" and "custodians," and provide a forum All transit managers can both sup- EAP Enterprise Architecture where their issues may be addressed. Ensure that your business area has a complete inventory of INPUTS Performance Potential Po l port and gain benefits from fostering Vision V sion / Mission / Goals Vi Goals Business Projects Pr Internal Data External / Regional Applications BUSINESS CASE Technology T METHODOLOGY IT/ITS thinking with an enterprise-wide Strategic Plan FUNDING Budget Process all the technology systems and applications that are needed Operating & Capital perspective and from developing an POST- T :: Programs to run your business. Typically, an inventory may exist of IMPLEMENTATATION IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS systems supported by the IT department, but other critical Approved A d Enterprise Architecture at their organ- L ANALYSIS ENGINEERING Projects P KEY ization. Included below is guidance for Project Flow spreadsheet and database applications developed within transit managers on actions related to Supporting Information Flow the business area may exist that are not inventoried nor EA/EAP they can take that will benefit understood by more than one person. their organization and/or the transit agency as a whole. Take actions to reduce operating risks due to systems that are undocumented, poorly backed-up, or depen- Have more effective IT staff and IT/ITS project team dent on only one individual. members by increasing the availability of knowledge Ask staff to move towards greater standardization and about your business goals and processes through actions version control of software and hardware. such as: Understand licensing restrictions of third party software Providing educational tours of your business area to IT and its interfaces; this becomes critical when application and IT/ITS project staff. data is needed for downstream applications. Working with other transit managers and groups to allo- Promote alignment of project development and procure- cate time and resources for identifying and documenting ment efforts with the "to-be" EA transition plan or "gap" the business relationships and dependencies between the analysis. The EAP transition plan may also specify the groups. development of standards and templates for hardware, Supporting the development and documentation of software, interfaces, and data. These standards will enable the EA Business Architecture that helps team members faster deployment and more effective management of the from different groups and new staff understand how the system's lifecycle. business works ("as-is") and how it is planned to work Ensure that the procurement process reviews the proj- in the future ("to-be"). ect specifications and procurement criteria against the Helping communicate an Enterprise Architecture Vision EA IT standards. for the agency that promotes the move towards enter- Establish a role for appropriately appointed IT staff on prise standards for performance metrics, information, every project with a technology component to ensure software, and hardware. alignment with the Enterprise Architecture Vision. Foster the mind-set in your organization that data is a cor- Ensure that the description of potential impacts is based porate asset requiring governance discipline and manage- on a review of the EA linkages among business strate- ment procedures such as standardization, quality control, gies, business processes, information, applications, and documentation of issues and other metadata (information technology.

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47 2.2.3 Business Case Methodology Checklist Develop a "gated approach" to requesting and releasing for Managers IT/ITS project funding that fits the needs of your orga- nization and the size and importance of the project. A EAP This section provides guidance for "gated" approach helps reduce risk and continually refines Enterprise Architecture INPUTS Performance Potential Po l transit managers related to the Busi- Vision V sion / Mission / Goals Vi Goals Business Projects Pr Internal Data External / Regional Applications BUSINESS CASE the project scope, schedule, and budget so a project is not Technology T METHODOLOGY IT/ITS ness Case Methodology (BCM). Strategic Plan FUNDING Budget Process Operating & Capital :: Programs held accountable against early, poorly refined estimates. POST- L T IMPLEMENTATATION IMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING Approved A Projects P d If your organization does not have One example of such an approach would be to: a BCM, work with the IT Manager Require the development of a preliminary Business Case KEY Project Flow and the other transit managers Supporting Information Flow for a proposed project. to have a formal analysis process If the Business Case makes sense, the project passes developed or acquired, even if it is a simple one. Support the through a "gate" when the management team releases development process by providing goals, guidance and a funding to develop functional requirements, a prelimi- thoughtful review. nary concept of operations, and refined scope, schedule, Make sure that the transit executive management team and budget information. understands and owns the BCM because it plays a critical Review the new materials from the prior step; if all still role in investment decision making and how their pro- looks good, the project passes through another "gate" posed projects will be understood and judged. when the management team releases funding to develop Ideally, the management team should review the process the project implementation approach, including further and ensure that it is unbiased and contains the information refinements to the scope, schedule, and budget. needed by the IT department, the transit business areas, Review the implementation approach materials from the finance and budget, and other key stakeholders. prior step and determine if additional information is Further, the transit management team should review and needed by the management team before releasing the guide policy and practices concerning how flexible the BCM project and funds through this "gate" into the implemen- should be. For example, should the BCM be modified to tation phase. have a simpler form for less expensive and less risky projects? The IT Manager and the Business Area Manager for the Review the Business Case for proposed projects and deter- project should continue to monitor the project's progress mine if a project meets agency goals, adequately addresses and expenses throughout the project's life cycle. risks, and is financially viable before it is allowed to start. Provide oversight of proposed projects throughout their lifecycle and ensure that the business case is updated at 2.2.5 Systems Engineering Checklist for Managers agreed-upon project steps or phases. As the project moves This section provides guidance to EAP through phases, estimates can be updated as additional Enterprise Architecture INPUTS Performance Potential Po l transit managers relative to the use of Vi V Vision sion / Mission / G Goals oals Business Projects Pr Internal Data Applications BUSINESS CASE information becomes available and assumptions pertaining External / Regional Technology T METHODOLOGY IT/ITS systems engineering for project devel- Strategic Plan to scope, schedule, and budget get confirmed or disproved. FUNDING Budget Process Operating & Capital opment. The guidance is designed to :: Programs The business area manager for the proposed project (e.g., POST- T IMPLEMENTATATION IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS Approved A d help managers ask questions to better L ANALYSIS ENGINEERING Projects P Manager of Operations, Manager of Customer Services, etc.) understand what is occurring during and the IT Manager should jointly assume accountability for KEY Project Flow the planning and development of an Supporting Information Flow the validity of the assumptions and project approach. IT/ITS project and to provide better Ensure that the metrics used in the Business Case are oversight and support to the projects, whether they are run by business-relevant and matter to key stakeholders. consultants or by transit staff. 2.2.4 Funding Checklist for Managers General Guidance EAP Enterprise This guidance for transit managers Identify personnel within the organization who have sys- Architecture INPUTS tems engineering experience. Performance Potential Po l relates to considerations for managing Vision V sion / Mission / Goals Vi Goals Business Pr Projects Internal Data External / Regional Applications BUSINESS CASE Technology T METHODOLOGY If the agency does not already possess it, put plans in place to IT/ITS or overseeing IT/ITS funding issues. Strategic Plan FUNDING Budget Process Operating & Capital POST- T :: Programs obtain the necessary knowledge and skills pertaining to the IMPLEMENTATATION IMPLEMENTATION Prioritize proposed IT/ITS proj- SYSTEMS systems engineering process, whether it is high level training Approved A d L ANALYSIS ENGINEERING Projects P KEY Project Flow ects, taking into consideration the for managers or more detailed training for project managers. Supporting Information Flow agency's goals and the project devel- Define a process for reviewing proposed projects to deter- opment dependencies with other mine to what degree the systems engineering process is IT/ITS projects. needed for each project.

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48 Project-Specific Guidance ized. A number of the steps also improve the value and suc- As a manager, ask the following questions with respect cess of other phases of an IT/ITS implementation. to each agency IT/ITS project, then provide guidance and support as needed to help ensure the success of the project. Ensure that a realistic Post-Implementation Review (PIR) Is it a low-risk or high-risk project? If the project is high risk, Plan or Project Validation Plan (depending on the termi- then use of the systems engineering process is essential to its nology used by the agency) is developed before the systems success. development is started so appropriate "before" data can be Has the agency assigned a project manager who has expe- collected. rience with the systems engineering process? Ensure that financial analyses, such as ROI with cost, Have the stakeholders who will be affected by the project benefit, and Total Cost of Ownership considerations are been identified and are they participating in the project completed during the development of the Business Case. development steps? These analyses can be used to assess whether the completed Have stakeholder needs been identified and documented project met or exceeded the original expectations. (e.g., in a Concept of Operations)? Provide motivation, oversight, and the resources necessary Ensure that all the transit managers understand the Concept to collect the data. of Operations for a new project. Additional stakeholder Ensure that the project verification steps in the systems needs and issues may be uncovered during the management engineering process, which verify that requirements are team meeting to review the Concept of Operations. met, are completed before system acceptance and project Have system requirements been defined, traced to the needs, closeout. and documented? After project closeout, ensure that the PIR data collection Did the design of the project consider alternatives rather plan is underway, so the post-implementation analyses can than assuming a solution? be completed. Is there a plan to verify that the system requirements are Request and review the post-implementation analysis met by the completed system? report. Has there been planning for Operations and Maintenance? Follow-up to make sure appropriate system and process This might first be documented in the Concept of Opera- improvement recommendations are implemented. tions and then described more completely in an Operations and Maintenance Plan. 3 References 2.2.6 Post-Implementation Analysis Checklist for Managers 1. Description derived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_case [November 20, 2008] EAP Enterprise Architecture This section provides guidance 2. From the Washington State Department of Information INPUTS Performance Services, Information Services Board, Project Management Potential Po l to transit managers relative to the use Vision V sion / Mission / Goals Vi Goals Business Projects Pr Internal Data External / Regional Applications BUSINESS CASE Technology T METHODOLOGY Framework, Closure-Post Implementation Review, http://isb. IT/ITS of Post-Implementation Analysis. Strategic Plan FUNDING Budget Process Operating & Capital wa.gov/tools/pmframework/projectclosure/postimplementation. The guidance focuses on manage- :: Programs POST- T IMPLEMENTATATION IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS Approved A d aspx L ANALYSIS ENGINEERING Projects P ment activities that ensure that 3. Best Practices for Using Geographic Data in Transit: A Location KEY Project Flow the benefits of completing post- Referencing Guidebook, Paula Okunieff, Nancy Neuerburg, and Supporting Information Flow implementation analyses are real- Teresa Adams, 2003