Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL NCHRP SYNTHESIS 415 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Design Fires in Road Tunnels A Synthesis of Highway Practice

OCR for page R1
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia MICHAEL W. HANCOCK, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley MICHAEL P. LEWIS, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA LAWRENCE A. SELZER, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN THOMAS K. SOREL, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S.DOT JOHN T. GRAY, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC TARA O'TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC BARRY R. WALLERSTEIN, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of June 2011.

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 415 Design Fires in Road Tunnels A Synthesis of Highway Practice CONSULTANT IGOR Y. MAEVSKI Jacobs Engineering New York, N.Y. S UBSCRIBER C ATEGORIES Bridges and Other Structures Design Highways Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 415 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-05, Topic 41-05 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0547-5570 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-14330-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments Library of Congress Control No. 2010943183 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a COPYRIGHT INFORMATION coordinated program of cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the American Association of State Highway and Transportation copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or Department of Transportation. practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the was requested by the Association to administer the research material, request permission from CRP. program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation NOTICE subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time Research Council. research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with a position to use them. regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and The program is developed on the basis of research needs overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation Governing Board of the National Research Council. departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those to the National Research Council and the Board by the American of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. program sponsors. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway and the Transportation Research Board. Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or The needs for highway research are many, and the National manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant essential to the object of the report. contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the Washington, DC 20001 National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual and can be ordered through the Internet at: states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research CHAIR Programs CATHERINE NELSON, Oregon DOT CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs MEMBERS NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer KATHLEEN S. AMES, Michael Baker, Jr., Inc. EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, PB Americas, Inc. SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF LISA FREESE, Scott County (MN) Public Works Division STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies RICHARD D. LAND, California DOT JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration (retired) GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ANANTH PRASAD, Secretary, Florida DOT DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, Federal Highway Administration DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant MARY LYNN TISCHER, Federal Highway Administration DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate LARRY VELASQUEZ, QUALCON, Inc. TOPIC PANEL FHWA LIAISON HARRY A. CAPERS, JR, Arora and Associates, Lawrenceville, NJ JACK JERNIGAN DONALD DWYER, New York State Department of Transportation GARY ENGLISH, Seattle Fire Marshall Office, Vashon, WA TRB LIAISON BRUCE V. JOHNSON, Oregon Department of Transportation STEPHEN F. MAHER STEPHEN F. MAHER, Transportation Research Board JIM MILKE, University of Maryland, College Park PRASAD NALLAPANENI, Virginia Department of Transportation DHARAM PAL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey KEVIN J. THOMPSON, Arora and Associates, Auburn, CA Cover figure: Plabutch Tunnel Fire Test SHEILA RIMAL DUWADI, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) (Graz University of Technology). JESUS M. ROHENA, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison)

OCR for page R1
FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu- ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-05, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highways Problem," searches out and synthe- sizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measure found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems PREFACE This synthesis offers information on the state of the practice of design fires in road By Donna L. Vlasak tunnels, focusing on tunnel fire dynamics and the means of fire management for design Senior Program Officer guidance. Information is derived from a literature review and a survey of U.S. and interna- Transportation tional transportation agencies and tunnel owners and reports on their experience with Research Board tunnel fire life safety systems such as ventilation and fire protection and detection. Ex- tensive appendices offer more details about tunnel safety projects, fire tests, and national and international standards requirements, as well as past tunnel fire descriptions. Basic information is provided for tunnel operators, first responders, and tunnel agencies to better understand their tunnels and train their personnel. It includes statistical data for fire incidents in road tunnels since 1949 through the last decade, as well as statistical data doc- uments for several tunnel fire safety projects that have been established and accomplished in the United States and Europe. Survey data were also solicited about agencies' experiences regarding problems with sys- tems, gaps in current knowledge, and what improvements agencies would like to see made. Worldwide, a total of 15 agencies reported on their experiences with 319 tunnels yielding a 60% national and 100% international response rate. A majority of the respondents ex- pressed interest in a tunnel fire computer simulator, as only research programs using "Vir- tual Fires" have been successfully developed and used in Sweden and Austria. Dr. Igor Y. Maevski, Jacobs Engineering, New York, N.Y., collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 7 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 7 Project Overview, 7 Description of the Survey Process, 8 10 CHAPTER TWO TUNNEL SAFETY PROJECTS--LITERATURE REVIEW Overview of Recently Completed and On-going Tunnel Safety Projects, 10 Prevention of Tunnel Highway Fires, 10 Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure, 11 International Technology Scanning ProgramSummary, 12 UPTUN--Summary, 12 FIT, 13 DARTS, 13 SafeT, 13 SIRTAKI, 14 Virtual Fires, 14 Safe Tunnel, 14 EuroTAP, 15 SOLIT, 15 L-surF, 15 EGSISTES, 15 Summary, 16 17 CHAPTER THREE TENABLE ENVIRONMENT--LITERATURE REVIEW Heat Effects, 17 Air Carbon Monoxide Content, 18 Toxicity, 19 Smoke Obscuration Levels, Visibility, 19 Air Velocities, 19 Noise Levels, 20 Geometric Considerations, 20 Time Considerations, 20 Summary, 20 21 CHAPTER FOUR SIGNIFICANT FIRE INCIDENTS IN ROAD TUNNELS--LITERATURE REVIEW Cause of Vehicular Fires in Road Tunnels, 21 Frequencies of Tunnel Fires, 24 Consequences of Tunnel Fires, 24 Summary, 25

OCR for page R1
27 CHAPTER FIVE COMBINED-USE ROAD TUNNELS--LITERATURE REVIEW Combined Use for Road Vehicles and Pedestrians, 27 Combined Use for Road Vehicles and Utilities, 27 Combined Use for Road and Railway Vehicles, 27 29 CHAPTER SIX FIRE TESTS--LITERATURE REVIEW Full Scale Tests, 29 Small-Scale Testing (Physical Modeling), 36 Large-Scale Experimental Facilities, 37 Gaps in Fire Testing, Modeling Limitations, and Computational Fluid Dynamics Verifications, 38 Summary, 39 41 CHAPTER SEVEN ANALYTICAL FIRE MODELING--LITERATURE REVIEW Analytical (Numerical) Fire Modeling Technique, 42 Findings on Numerical Modeling Based on Literature Review, 44 Summary, 45 46 CHAPTER EIGHT SURVEY RESULTS Fire Frequency in U.S. Tunnels, 46 Consequences of Fire Incidents, 46 Severity of Tunnel Fires, 46 Existing Practice of Fire Management in Road Tunnels, 47 Best Design Practice, 48 Maintenance, Repair, and Rehabilitation of the Fire Management Systems, 49 Selected Important Examples, 50 Findings and Future Studies, 51 Computer-Based Training Tools for Operators to Manage Fire--Virtual Training, 51 54 CHAPTER NINE DESIGN FOR TUNNEL FIRES--LITERATURE REVIEW Background, 54 Integrated Approach to Safety in Tunnels, 56 Design Fire Size, 58 Exploring the Emerging Issues of Alternative Fuel Vehicles on Design Fires, 60 Fire Smoke and Smoke Production--Literature Review, 65 Temperature of Fire Gases and Tunnel Walls, 69 Fire Development Based on Literature Review, 71 Summary, 76 79 CHAPTER TEN COMPILATION OF DESIGN GUIDANCE, STANDARDS, AND REGULATIONS Tunnel Ventilation and International Standards Requirements, 83 Tunnel Fire Protection, Fire Fighting, and International Standards Requirements, 90 Tunnel Fire Detection, Notification, and International Standards Requirements, 90 Tunnel Egress and International Standards Requirements, 93 Tunnel Incident Response and International Standards Requirements, 94 Summary, 96 97 CHAPTER ELEVEN DESIGN FIRE SCENARIO FOR FIRE MODELING TimeTemperature and Time-of-Tenability Curves, 97 Emergency Egress Timeline, 100 Equipment Activation Timeline, 102 Combined Curve for Evacuation and System Activation, 102 Summary, 103

OCR for page R1
105 CHAPTER TWELVE FIXED FIRE SUPPRESSION AND ITS IMPACT ON DESIGN FIRE SIZE Background, 105 Summary, 111 112 CHAPTER THIRTEEN EFFECTS OF VARIOUS VENTILATION CONDITIONS, TUNNEL GEOMETRY, AND STRUCTURAL AND NONSTRUCTURAL TUNNEL COMPONENTS ON DESIGN FIRE CHARACTERISTICS--LITERATURE REVIEW Influence of Ventilation on Fire Heat Release Rate, 112 Influence of Tunnel Geometry on Fire Heat Release Rate, 113 Influence of Structural and Nonstructural Components on Fire Heat Release Rate, 113 Summary, 114 Example of Design Fire Size Estimate, 115 117 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CONCLUSIONS 124 REFERENCES 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY 130 GLOSSARY 131 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 137 APPENDIX B LIST OF RESPONDING AGENCIES 138 APPENDIX C SUMMARY OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 151 APPENDIX D TUNNEL SAFETY PROJECTS ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION 157 APPENDIX E FIRE TESTS 161 APPENDIX F COMPARISON OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS REQUIREMENTS 179 APPENDIX G PAST TUNNEL FIRES DESCRIPTION APPENDIXES DG ARE WEB-ONLY AND CAN BE FOUND AT WWW.TRB.ORG, SEARCH ON "NCHRP SYNTHESIS 415."