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11 FIGURE 1 Seven recently accomplished European projects on tunnel safety (6 ). This study demonstrates the risk of tanker truck and heavy How can they avoid these hazards and threats? goods vehicle (HGV) accidents in road tunnels. Those vehi- How can they prepare themselves for this disturbance if cles provide the most dangerous, largest, and most rapidly it occurs? growing category of fires. The report provides guidelines for protecting tunnels by minimizing the damage potential from extreme events such MAKING TRANSPORTATION TUNNELS SAFE that, if damaged, they may be returned to full functionality AND SECURE in a relatively short period of time. It examines safety and NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security and security guidelines in identifying principal vulnerabilities TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security series pub- of tunnels to various hazards and threats. It also explores lications have jointly published Making Transportation in potential physical countermeasures, potential operational Tunnels Safe and Secure (1). The report is Volume 12 in each countermeasures, and deployable, integrated systems for series. emergency-related command, control, communications, and information. This research project was developed to provide safety and security guidelines for transportation tunnel owners and The report is organized in seven chapters and covers the operators (1). To accomplish this task, a team of experienced following topics: design engineers, builders, and operations personnel collab- orated with safety and security experts to address the follow- Hazard and threats analysis ing questions: Case studies on fire events in road and railway tunnels in different countries What natural hazards and international threats do they Tunnel structural and vulnerabilities analysis face? Countermeasures and system integration. How would they be introduced? What are the vulnerable areas of their tunnel? This report also focused on tunnel structural and vulnerabil- How much of a disturbance would there be? ity analysis.