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12 INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY SCANNING Europeans are providing extensive research, resulting in PROGRAM--SUMMARY innovative design and emergency management plans that consider how people react in tunnel emergencies. Because An 11-member team was formed to study European practices motorist behavior is unpredictable in tunnel incidents, Euro- on the aforementioned topics. The team consisted of repre- peans provide instructions for drivers, passengers, and tunnel sentatives from FHWA; state DOTs; Bay Area Rapid Tran- operators as straightforward as possible to reduce required sit District (BART); Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, who decision making during an incident, such as a tunnel fire. also represented the International Bridge, Tunnel, and Turn- Appendix D (web-only) provides additional information on pike Association; plus a design consultant and the report facil- nine initiatives and practices related to human factors, plan- itator. The scan was sponsored by FHWA, AASHTO, and ning, design, and incident and asset management that came NCHRP. During late September and early October 2005, the from the International Technology Scanning Program. team visited Denmark, France, Norway, Sweden, and Switzer- land. In addition, the team had meetings with representatives from Austria, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. These UPTUN--SUMMARY countries were selected on the basis of desk scan findings that showed that they are innovators of underground transporta- The UPTUN project was carried out within the fifth frame- tion systems. work program of the European Union by a consortium in which 41 partners from 19 European countries worked The objectives of the scan were to learn what is being done together from 2002 to 2006 (8). The primary objectives of internationally for underground transportation systems in the the UPTUN project were: areas of safety, operations, and emergency response. The focus of the scan was on equipment, systems, and procedures incor- Development of innovative technologies. The focus porated into modern underground and underwater tunnels by was on technologies in the areas of detection and leading international engineers and designers. The study con- monitoring, mitigating measures, influencing human sidered the following: response, and protection against structural damage. The main output is a set of innovative cost-effective Tunnel systems and designs that provide fire protection, technologies. blast protection, and areas of refuge or evacuation pas- Development, demonstration, and promotion of proce- sages for users. dures for safety-level evaluation, including decision sup- Arrangements of the various components to maximize port models, as well as knowledge transfer. The main their effectiveness, assure that it can be inspected and output was a risk-based evaluating and upgrading of maintained, and promote cost savings. models. Tunnel operations, including incident detection and deterrent technology, and incident response and recov- The desired spin-off of the UPTUN project was: ery planning. Specialized technologies and standards used in moni- The restoration of confidence in tunnels as safe modes toring or inspecting structural elements and operating of transportation systems. equipment to ensure optimal performance and mini- Reducing trade barriers caused by evidently unsafe mize downtime during maintenance or rehabilitation. tunnels. An increase in the awareness of stakeholders for the Regarding the safety and security aspects, the team was necessity to develop initiatives to link all relevant interested in learning about planning approaches, standards, research. manpower roles and responsibilities, communication tech- niques, and state of the art products and equipment used to The project was specifically targeted at ensuring a pan- deter, detect, deny, defend, respond to, and recover from both European approach toward the improvement of fire safety natural and manmade disasters and other incidents. in European tunnels. Team members were interested in not only tunnel prac- The work was divided into seven technical work packages: tices and innovations for highways, but also for passenger and freight rail. The results of this project were published as Under- WP 1: Prevention, detection, and monitoring. ground Transportation Systems in Europe: Safety, Operations, WP 2: Fire development and mitigation measures. and Emergency Response (2). WP 3: Human response. WP 4: Fire effect and tunnel performance; system struc- The scan team learned that the Europeans consider response tural response. and safety measures already in place for crashes and other inci- WP 5: Evaluation of safety levels and upgrading of dents to also be applicable for many terrorist actions. existing tunnels.