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13 WP 6: Fire effects and tunnel performance; system 5. Information and communication (website, newsletter, response. and workshop). WP 7: Promotion, dissemination, education and training, 6. Management. and socioeconomic impact. The first four work packages were designed to increase DARTS insight and develop new measures to reduce probabilities and DARTSs stands for Durable and Reliable Tunnel Structures mitigate consequences of fires in tunnels. The fifth and sixth (10). The objective of DARTS was to develop operational work packages were primarily focused on the development methods and supporting practical tools for the best proactive of the innovative integral upgrading approach. The final decision-making process. Its focus was to compile the optimal work package (WP 7) promoted and disseminated the results. The work packages tasks and objectives are discussed in tunnel design and construction procedures regarding environ- Appendix D (web-only). mental conditions, technical qualities, safety precautions, and long service life. The approach is based on a minimum total life-cycle cost, including operation and maintenance, and aims FIT to optimize safety and reliability, create the best environment and safety for users and establish the best benefit for society FIT is the European Thematic Network on Fire in Tunnels. and the owner. FIT provides a European platform for dissemination and information of up-to-date knowledge and research on fires DARTS was developed for the most common current and tunnels. FIT represents 12 European countries with 33 types of tunnels: rock tunnels, bored tunnels, New Austrian members (9). Tunneling Method tunnels, immersed tunnels, and cut and cover tunnels. The following main objectives have been identified for the FIT Thematic Network: The project, a partnership of eight European companies, was undertaken from 2001 to 2004. The DARTS project 1. The network had as its main objective the dissemination received the financial support of the European Communities of road tunnel design results obtained from European and Sustainable Growth Program (GROWTH 2000). and national projects. The aim was to optimize research efforts, reach critical mass, and enhance its impact at the European level by combining the results of the different SAFET projects. 2. FIT established a set of consultable databases contain- SafeT is a thematic network on tunnels that was started in ing essential knowledge on fire in tunnels. May 2003 and finished in April 2006. The objective of the 3. A third common objective of the network members SafeT network was to develop comprehensive guidelines was to disseminate recommendations on design fires for pan-European decision making on the safety of existing for tunnels. tunnels (primarily road, but also rail) by investigating, iden- 4. Consequently, FIT also had as an objective developing tifying, assessing, and proposing best practice solutions for: a European consensus for fire safe design on the basis of (1) preventing incidents/accidents in existing tunnels, and existing national regulations, guidelines, code of prac- (2) mitigating its effects--for both people and goods--to tices, and safety requirements. ensure a high level of tunnel safety in Europe. 5. The final objective was the definition of best practices for tunnel authorities and fire emergency services on From the literature search and the discussions in the SafeT prevention and training, accident management, and fire network it can be concluded that many different methods are emergency operations. used to assess safety during the design and operation of a tun- nel. The applied methods vary from qualitative to quantita- The FIT work plan defines six work packages with corre- tive, from probabilistic to deterministic (11). sponding deliverables and milestones that are further sum- marized in Appendix D (web-only): Important for the selection of a tunnel safety assessment method is the level of detail in the available input for the 1. Consultable databases on fire and tunnel topics [road method. In the early stage of tunnel design it is important that tunnel design projects, test-sites, computational fluid more generic methods such as checklists be applied. In the dynamics (CFD), equipment, fire accidents, and upgrad- outline design, more detailed methods can be implemented. ing of tunnels]. At this stage deterministic and probabilistic methods are used. 2. Recommendations on the design fire scenarios (report). In the detailed design phase, the application of risk assess- 3. Compilation of guidelines for fire safe design (report). ment methods is important to ensure that assumptions made 4. Best practice for fire response management (report). in earlier tunnel risk assessments are correct and that the