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124 REFERENCES 1. NCHRP Report 525, Volume 12: Surface Transportation Ventilation," Sicherheit und Beluftung von Tunnelanla- Security, and TCRP Report 86: Making Transportation gen, Apr. 1921, 2004, P. Sturm and S. Minarik, Eds., Tunnels Safe and Secure, Transportation Research Board pp. 175180. of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2006. 15. Sauter, R., "EuroTAP: European Tunnel Assessment 2. Underground Transportation Systems in Europe: Safety, Programme," Safe and Reliable Tunnels: Innovative Operations, and Emergency Response, Report FHWA- European Achievements, Second International Sympo- PL-06-016, International Technology Scanning Program, sium, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 16. "Minimum Levels of Safety in European Road Tun- June 2006. nels," EU Directive 2004/54/EC, European Parliament, 3. American Association of State Highway and Trans- Luxembourg. portation Officials, Technical Manual for Design and 17. Amberg, F., "L-surF--Test Sites for Full Scale Fire Construction of Road Tunnels--Civil Elements, Federal Testing in Tunnels," International Conference on Fire Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2010. Suppression in Tunnels, IWMA, Munich, Germany, 4. American Association of State Highway and Transporta- Apr. 2008. tion Officials, Recommendations for Bridge and Tunnel 18. Allowable Hydrogen Permeation Rate for Automotive Security, Prepared by The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge Applications, Deliverable D74 (InsHyde)--FINAL with and Tunnel Security for AASHTO, Federal Highway Corr. 1 of 28.02.2009. Administration, Washington, D.C., Sep. 2003. 19. Initial Guidance for Using Hydrogen in Confined Spaces, 5. Thompson, K., Best Practices for Roadway Tunnel Design, Results from InsHyde, Jan. 30, 2009, 90 pp. Construction, Maintenance, and Operation, NCHRP 20. Rhodes, N. and M. Macdonald, Fire in Tunnels FIT 20-68A, Scan 09-05, U.S. Domestic Scan Program SCOBS Technical Report--Part 3. Fire Response Management: 2010 Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 pp. Thematic Network Fire in Tunnels, Brussels, Belgium, 6. Khoury, G., "Common Safety/UPTUN Safety Philoso- 2006. 21. PIARC, "Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels" phy Leading to the Global Approach to Tunnel Safety" 05.05.B, La Defense, France, 1999. [Online]. Available: www.itaaites.org/cms/fileadmin/ 22. ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications, American filemounts/. . ./GAKhoury.pdf. Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 7. Prevention and Control of Highway Tunnel Fires, Report (ASHRAE), Atlanta, Ga., 2007. FHWA-RD-83-032, Federal Highway Administration, 23. Assessment of the Safety of Tunnels Study, European Par- Washington, D.C., 1986. liament, Science and Technology Options Assessment, 8. Both, C., Tunnel Safety: Results of the Largest European IP/A/STOA/FWC/2005-28/SC22/29, IPOL/A/STOA/ Research Project, International Conference on Fire 2006-26, Brussels, Belgium, May 2006. Suppression in Tunnels, IWMA, Munich, Germany, 24. Braestrup, M.W., Risk Management and Safety Concept Apr. 2008. for the Øresund Link Immersed Tunnel, American Asso- 9. Fire in Tunnels, FIT General Report, Thematic Network ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials Fire in Tunnels, Brussels, Belgium, Jan. 4, 2006. Standing Committee on Highways, Safety and Security 10. "First International Symposium on Safe and Reliable in Roadway Tunnels, Final Report, Washington, D.C., Tunnels" [Online]. Available: www.dartsproject.net. Mar. 2006. 11. Molag, M., "Risk Assessment Guidelines for Tunnels," 25. Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program, A Col- Safe and Reliable Tunnels, Innovative European Achieve- lection of Papers from the ASHRAE Meeting, Boston, ments, Second International Symposium, Lausanne, Mass., JuneJuly 1997, ASHRAE Technical Bulletin, Switzerland, 2006. Vol. 13, No. 1. 12. Marques, A. and M. Serrano, "Decision Support for 26. Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program, Test Emergency in Roads," Safe and Reliable Tunnels: Inno- Report, Nov. 1995. vative European Achievements, Second International 27. Summary of Large Scale Fire Tests in the Runehamar Symposium, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006. Tunnel in Norway, Conducted in Association with the 13. Beer, G., "Virtual Training," Safe and Reliable Tunnels: UPTUN Research Program, J. Brekelmans and R. Bosch, Innovative European Achievements, Second International Eds., Sep. 2003. Symposium, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006. 28. Ingason, H., "Design Fires in Tunnels," Safe and Reliable 14. Beer, G. and T. Reichl, "Virtual Fires a Virtual Reality Tunnels, Innovative European Achievements, Second Simulator for Tunnel Fires," VKM-THD Mitteilungen, International Symposium, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2006. Publisher Univ.-Prof. Dr. Helmut Eichlseder, Vol. 84, 29. Maevski, I. and A. Barsky, "Improvement of the 2004, 2nd Symposium/2. Tagung, "Tunnel Safety and Semi-Transverse Ventilation System of Road Tunnels,"
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125 Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on 44. Day, J.R., "How Safe Can a Tunnel Be--How Safe Will Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, A. It Be? Designers' Perspective," VKM-THD Mitteilun- Haerter, Ed., BHR, Brighton, U.K., 1991, pp. 877902. gen, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Helmut Eichlseder, Vol. 93, 2010, 30. Ilin, V. and V. Belatcky, "Fire Modeling in Underground 5th Symposium/5. Tagung, In Tunnel Safety and Venti- Transportation Structures," in Fire and Explosions Model- lation, Sicherheit und Beluftung von Tunnelanlagen, ing, N. Brushlinsky and A. Korolchenko, Eds., Pojnauka, P. Sturm and M. Sabine, Eds., May 34, 2010, pp. 263268. Moscow, Russia, 2000, pp. 278318. 45. Miclea, P., "Heat Release Rate of Transit Vehicles: The 31. Ko, Y. and J. Hadjisophocleous, "An Experimental Need for a Uniform Approach in its Calculation and Study of the Impact of Tunnel Suppression on Tunnel Application," APTA, San Diego, Calif., June 1998. 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Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, BD 78/99, Depart- tection, Fluent Users' Group Meeting, Manchester, N.H., ment of Transport, London, United Kingdom, Feb 2011. May 2003. 54. Blendermann, W., "On a Probabilistic Approach to the 40. "Fire on the Web," Building and Fire Research Labora- Influence of Wind on the Longitudinal Ventilation of tory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Road Tunnels," Proceedings of the Second International Gaithersburg, Md. [Online]. Available: http://www. Symposium on the Aerodynamics and Ventilation of fire.nist.gov. Vehicle Tunnels, Cambridge, U.K., 1976, pp. B1-1. 41. Safety in Tunnels, Transport of Dangerous Goods Through 55. Buchmann, R., The Impact of Controllability on the Road Tunnels Highlights, Organisation for Economic Dimensioning of Smoke Extraction Systems for Bi- Co-Operation and Development, 2001. directional Traffic Road Tunnels, 3rd Symposium on 42. 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126 58. Wang, W., et al., "An Integrated Safety/Security Video 68. Salisbury, M. and D. Charters, "Application and Limita- Image Detection (VID) System for Road Tunnel Protec- tion of the Quantified Fire Risk Assessment Techniques tion," Proceedings from the Fourth International Sym- for the Design of Tunnels. Tunnel Fires and Escape from posium on Tunnel Safety and Security, A. Lönnermark Tunnels," Third International Conference, Washington and H. Ingason, Eds., Frankfurt am Main, Germany, D.C., Oct. 911, 2001, Organized by TMI. Mar. 1719, 2010. 69. Schmid, E., CORDIS Wire, Nov. 1112, 2009 [Online]. 59 Fire Protection in Vehicles and Tunnels for Public Available: http://cordis.europa.eu/wire. Transport, 2005 Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunterneh- 70. "Deadly Tunnel Fire Melted Cars," Sydney Morning men, VDV-Forderkreis, ISBN 3-87094-664-4 Dusseldorf, Herald, Mar. 23, 2007. Germany, 503 pp. 71. Dix, A., "Fixed Fire Fighting Systems," presented at the 60. English, G., "Incident Management and Tunnel Systems," International Tunnel Safety Conference, "Fire Suppres- Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on sion in Tunnels," Apr. 23, 2008, Munich, Germany. Tunnel Safety and Security, A. Lönnermark and H. Inga- 72. Carvel, R. and A Beard, "Fires for Tunnel Water Mist son, Eds., Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Mar. 1719, Suppression Systems," Proceedings from the Third 2010, pp. 363374. International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security 61. "E-Lume-A-Path," Egress Markings Systems, Middle- Stockholm, A. Lonnermark and H. Ingason, Eds., SP town, Conn. [Online]. Available: http://egressmarking. Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Method for Making Realistic Estimates of the Heat Release Rate, com/. Sweden, Mar. 1214, 2008, pp. 141161. 62. Light Step Technologies, DunMurry, Belfast, Northern 73. Opstad, K., "Catastrophic Tunnel Fires--Findings of Ireland [Online]. Available: http://lightsteptechnologies. Real Scale Fire Tests," International Tunnel Safety com/. Conference: Fire Suppression in Tunnels, Apr. 2008, 63. Shahcheraghi, N., "Performance Based Cross Passage Munich, Germany. Spacing in Road Tunnels, Aerodynamics and Ventila- 74. Project Safety Test: Report on Fire Tests, Civil Engineering tion of Vehicle Tunnels," Proceedings of the 13th Inter- Division, Directorate-General for Public Works and Water national Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ventilation Management, the Hague, the Netherlands, Aug. 2002. of Vehicle Tunnels, I. Sweetland, Ed., BHR Group, New 75. Melvin, B. and J. Gonzalez, "Considering Tunnel Brunswick, N.J., 2009. Geometry When Selecting a Design Fire Heat Release 64. Ingason, H., A. Bergqvist, A. Lönnermark, H. Frantzich, Rate for Road Tunnel Safety Systems," Proceedings of and K. Hasselrot, Räddningsinsatseri Vägtunnlar, the 13th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Räddningsverksrapport, Sweden, P21-459/05 2005, Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, I. Sweetland, Ed., BHR, P29459 (in Swedish). New Brunswick, N.J., 2009. 65. Promat, Tissett, the Netherlands [Online]. Available: 76. Haack, A., "Fire in Tunnels. FIT Technical Report-- http://www.promat-tunnel.com. Part 1: Design Fire Scenarios Thematic Network Fire in 66. Ernst, S., International Scan on Underground Transporta- Tunnels," Stuva, Germany. tion Systems in Europe Safety, Operations, and Emergency 77. Höj, N.P., Fire in Tunnels FIT Technical Report--Part 2 Response, American Association of State Highway and Fire Safe Design: Road Tunnels Thematic Network Fire Transportation Officials Standing Committee, Federal in Tunnels, COWI Group, Lyngby, Denmark. Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2007. 78. Ryan, S., "Benefits Trump Costs for Federal Rail Safety 67. Khoury, G.A., Tunnel Safety ICE London, Fire Safety Program," Mass Transit, Dec. 2, 2009 [Online]. Available: Design FSD, Oct. 2006. http://www.masstransitmag.com. 79. Harris, K., "Water Application Rates for Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Road Tunnels" Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, A. Lönnermark and H. Ingason, Eds., Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Mar. 1719, 2010.