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127 BIBLIOGRAPHY AASHTO, Protecting America's Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels, International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project, The Role of State DOTs in Homeland Security, American The Fire Protection Research Foundation, Las Vegas, Nev., Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, June 2008. Washington, D.C., Jan. 2005. International Water Mist Conference, May 2325, 2009, Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, 8th Inter- London, U.K. national Symposium, I. Cockram, Ed., Publication 12, Kashef, A., G.D. Lougheed, G.P. Crampton, Z. Liu, K. Yoon, BHR, Liverpool, U.K., 1994. G.V. Hadjisophocleous, and K.H. Almand, "Findings of Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, 10th Inter- the International Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research national Symposium, A. Caserta, Ed., Publication 43, BHR, Project," Fire Technology, Vol. 45, 2009, pp. 221237. Boston, Mass., 2000. Kennedy, P. and J. Kennedy, "Flashover and Fire Analysis, Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, 11th Inter- A Discussion of the Practical Use of Flashover in Fire national Symposium, W. Bradbury, Ed., BHR, Luzern, Investigation," Aug. 2003, presentation at the NFPA World Switzerland, 2003. Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, May 2004. Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, 12th Inter- Kennedy, W.D., J.A. Gonzalez, and J.G. Sanchez, "Derivation national Symposium, A. Vardy, Ed., BHR, Portoroz, and Application of the SES Critical Velocity Equations," Slovenia, 2006. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 102, No. 2, 1996, pp. 4044. AMCA, Laboratory Methods of Testing Dampers for Rating, Kim, H., A. Lonnermark, and H. Ingason, Comparison and Standard 500-D, Air Movement and Control Association, Review of Safety Design Guidelines for Road Tunnels, SP Arlington Heights, Ill., 1998. Report 2007:08, Fire Technology, SP Technical Research AMCA, Laboratory Methods of Testing Louvers for Rating, Institute of Sweden, Bors. Standard 500-L, Air Movement and Control Association, Klote, J.H. and J.A. Milke, "Principles of Smoke Management," Arlington Heights, Ill., 1999. American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engi- ASHRAE, Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Rating, neers, Atlanta, Ga., 2002. Standard 51-1999 (AMCA Standard 210-99), American Liu, Z.G., A. Kashef, G.D. Lougheed, J.Z. Su, N. Bnichou, Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers and K.H. Almand., "An Overview of the International (ASHRAE), 1999. Road Tunnel Fire Detection Research Project," 10th Fire Bendelius, A.G., "Tunnel Ventilation," Chapter 20, Tunnel Suppression and Detection Research Application Sympo- Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., J.O. Bickel, T.R. Kuesel, sium, Orlando, Fla., 2006. and E.H. King, Eds. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y., Liu, Z.G., A. Kashef, G.D. Lougheed, G.P. Crampton, Y. Ko, 1996. and G.V. Hadjisophocleous, "Parameters Affecting the Bendelius, A.G., "Road Tunnels and Bridges," In Fire Pro- tection Handbook, R.E. Cote, C.C. Grant, J.R. Hall, R.E. Performance of Detection Systems in Road Tunnels," Solomon, and P.A. Powell, Eds., NFPA, Quincy, Mass., 13th International Symposium on Aerodynamics and Ven- 2008. tilation of Vehicle Tunnels, New Brunswick, N.J., 2009. Bickel, J., T. Kuesel, and E. King, Tunnel Engineering Hand- Long Road and Rail Tunnels, First International Conference, book, 2nd ed., Springer, 1996. ITC, Basel, Switzerland, 1999. Both, K. and A. Haack, "Present-Day Design Fire Scenarios Mangs, J. and O. Keski-Rahkonen, "Characterisation of the and Comparison with Test Results and Real Fires: Struc- Fire Behaviour of a Burning Passenger Car, Part I: Car tures & Equipment," Safe and Reliable Tunnel European Fire Experiments," Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 23, 1994a. Achievements, First International Symposium, Prague, the Mangs, J. and O. Keski-Rahkonen, "Characterization of Czech Republic, 2004. the Fire Behaviour of a Burning Passenger Car, Part II: DURACRETE, Probabilistic Performance-based Durability Parametrization of Measured Rate of Heat Release Curves," Design of Concrete, Research Project, Fourth Framework, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 23, 1994b. Brite-EuRam. Materials and Design Against Fire, IMechE Seminar Publi- FIT, Fire in Tunnels, Thematic network, Fifth Framework cation, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd., London, [Online]. Available: www.etnfit.net. U.K., 1997-12. Hume, B., "Water Mist Suppression in Conjunction with Memorial Tunnel Fire Ventilation Test Program, Compre- Displacement Ventilation," Fire Engineering Research hensive Test Report, Massachusetts Highway Department, Report 03/4, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, Feb. Boston, and Federal Highway Administration, Washington, 2003. D.C. Ingason, H., "Heat Release Rate Measurements in Tunnel Meo, M.G., Modelling of Enclosure Fires, Ph.D. course in Fires," Proceedings of the International Conference on Chemical Engineering, Programma Operativo Nazionale, Fires in Tunnels, Bors, Sweden, 1994. Italy, 2000/2006.

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129 U.S.DOT, Subway Environment Simulation (SES) Computer U.S.DOT, Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Program Version 4: User's Manual and Programmer's Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel, U.S. Government Printing Manual, Issued as: Volume II of Subway Environmental Office, Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C., Design Handbook, Pub. No. FTA-MA-26-7022-97-1, U.S. 1998. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1997. Zalosh, R. and P. Chantranuwat, "International Road Fire (Also available from Volpe Transportation Center, Cam- Tunnel Detection Research Project--Phase 1," The Fire bridge, Mass.) Protection Research Foundation, Quincy, Mass., 2003.