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138 APPENDIX C Summary of Survey Questionnaire Responses Appendix C has two parts, which are taken from the survey 18. What year was the tunnel built or expected date of results. The first part contains the national data and the second completion? part is the international data. Some of the tunnels may make See below chart multiple choices for the "please check all that apply" ques- tions. The survey data below are shown based on the number 19. Is the tunnel under supervision? of tunnels, instead of number of agencies (which may cover Yes, 24 hr--19 multiple tunnels). Yes, except at night--0 No--11 PART 1: NATIONAL DATA 20. What is the normal traffic operation? Uni-directional--26 Section 1 Background Information Bi-directional--4 The first 15 questions were used so that the researchers could contact the respondent for additional information, if neces- 21. When does the tunnel operate in bi-directional sary. All this information is shown below. mode? (Please check all that apply.) Normally--4 At night time--2 Section 2 General Information Off-peak hours--2 Occasionally--0 Questions 16 and 17 were used to obtain the agency name During construction/maintenance in other tube--9 and the name of the tunnels, respectively. All this informa- Never--16 tion is shown below. Other (Please explain)--1 (emergency evacuation) Number of Tunnel agency surveys name submitted Number of tunnels Year tunnel was built 1) Downtown Tunnel (First)--EBL 1) 1986 2) Downtown Tunnel (First)--WBL 3) Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel-- 2) 1952 EBL Virginia 4) Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel-- 3) 1974 Department of WBL 7 Transportation 5) Midtown tunnel 4) 1958 (VDOT) 6) MonitorMerrimac Memorial Bridge Tunnel 7) NAS Runway #29 Underpass 5) 1962 6) 1992 7) 1977 California 6 1) Webster Tube 1) 1963 Department of 2) Posey Tube 2) 1927 Transportation 3) Sunrise On Ramp 3) 2006 4) Caldecott Tunnel Complex #1 4) 1937 5) Caldecott Tunnel Complex #2 5) 1937 6) Caldecott Tunnel Complex #3 6) 1963 1) Liberty Tunnel 1) 1924 PennDOT 2 2) Stowe Tunnel 2) 1909 CDOT--Region Eisenhower/Johnson Memorial Tunnel 1973/1979 1, Maintenance 1 (2 bores, 1 tunnel unit) Section 9 Chesapeake Bay 1) Thimble Shoals 1) 1964 2 Bridge and Tunnel 2) Chesapeake Channel 2) 1964 Maryland 1) The Fort McHenry Tunnel 1) 1985 Transportation 1 2) The Baltimore Harbor Tunnel 2) 1957 Authority (continued on next page)

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139 1) Oneonta 1) 1914 2) Cape Creek 2) 1921 3) Elk Creek 3) 1932 4) Toothrock 4) 1932 Oregon DOT 1 5) Arch Cape 5) 1937 6) Salt Creek 6) 1938 7) Sunset 7) 1940 8) Knowles Creek 8) 1958 9) Vista Ridge Twin Tunnels 9) 1969 The Port The Holland Tunnel 1927 Authority of New 1 York & New Jersey 1) I-90 Mt. Baker Ridge Tunnel 1) 1990 WS DOT 1 2) I-90 Mercer Island Tunnel 2) 1990 22. What type of vehicles use the tunnel? (Please 26. Were there any casualties from the fire? check all that apply.) None--16 Cars--24 Minor--2 Buses--24 Major--0 Trucks--24 HGV--19 27. Has the fire department ever been involved in Special trucks (military)--12 fire fighting in this tunnel? Gasoline tankers: freely--6 Never--1 Gasoline tankers: supervised when tunnel is closed Occasionally--1 for normal traffic--4 Every time--14 Other vehicles--10 28. Was there an investigation performed after the fire? Section 3 Fire Incidents Information Every time--6 Occasionally, depending on fire size--6 23. How many annual vehicle fire incidents happen Never--1 in this tunnel (average)? Once (Please explain when)--5 No occurrence (skip questions 918)--11 Happened once in lifetime--0 29. What was the estimated maximum fire size? Less than one every year--2 MD (2 tunnels)--Single tractor trailer truck From 1 to 2 every year--14 CO--15 to 20 MW From 2 to 5 every year--1 CA (5 tunnels)--small car fire Happens at least once a month--0 30. What was the longest duration of the fire? 24. What were the most severe vehicle fire incidents MD (2 tunnels)--about 20 min in this tunnel? (Please check all that apply.) CO--25 min Motorcycle fire--0 WA (2 tunnels)--15 min Passenger car fire--13 Multiple passenger cars (24 vehicles)--7 Vans--6 31. Have you videotaped any car fire incidence? Bus--1 VA DOT (6 tunnels)--Yes Heavy goods truck fire--10 VA DOT (1 tunnel)--No Multiple trucks fire--0 PA DOT--No Tanker fire--0 MD (2 tunnels)--No Alternative fuel vehicle--0 NY/NJ Port Authority--Yes Other--1 (Recreational vehicle, motor home) CO--No WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Yes 25. Was there any damage made to this tunnel as a result of the fire incident? 32. Can you share the video information? No damages. No impact on tunnel operation--2 No damages. Tunnel was closed for operation for 33. Has your agency been successful in managing the 30 min or more--0 fire event? (Please provide an explanation.) Minor damages (no structural damage)--15 No--0 Structural damage which required tunnel closure for Yes--13 an extended period of time--1 Partially--6

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140 34. Do you have an emergency response plan in place? Fire sprinkler system--2 Yes--22 Foam system--4 Fire apparatus in the tunnel--1 35. Please explain what are the strengths of your agency's fire management program? 40. What kind of fire life safety system does this PA DOT--local response time under 10 min tunnel have? (Please check all that apply.) PA DOT--EMS/FIRE response under 10 min Tunnel ventilation--20 MD (2 tunnels)--Exhaust fan fire pattern moved Emergency egress--9 smoke away from motorists caught behind the fire Egress pressurization--2 and the fire department responded quickly to Other (Please explain)--0 extinguish the fire. The quick response was the result of quarterly meetings between the fire depart- 41. What communication systems are used by rescue ment and the Authority to discuss response plans. personnel and others for fire emergency? NY/NJ Port Authority--Coordination of multiple VA DOT (6 tunnels)--STARS entities PA DOT--800mhz radio VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--3,000 gallon tanker truck, MD (2 tunnels)--Portable radio and cellular phone wrecker fire trucks, wall fire extinguishers, fire OR DOT (9 tunnels)--Radio, cell phone pumps, fire department within 7 miles NY/NJ Port Authority--Radio WA DOT--Routine testing VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--District radio, cell phone statewide radio system 36. What barriers or difficulties have you or your CA DOT (5 tunnels)--call boxes and responding organization encountered in implementing fire agency comms management? (Please check all that apply.) CA DOT (1 tunnel)--responding agency comms Technical (please explain)--2 WA DOT--Portable radio Political (please explain)--1 Legal (please explain)--0 42. Please explain how quickly your agency is able Organizational/institutional (please explain)--9 to detect and clear routine traffic crashes inside Staffing/resources (please explain)--9 this tunnel? Other (please explain)--0 VA DOT (7 tunnels)--1/2 h to 1 h for routine vehicu- None--15 lar incidents; 4 h for incidents involving fatalities PA DOT--less than 15 min tow trucks on site 37. What are your suggestions on how these barriers MD (2 tunnels)--Detection less than 1 minute can be overcome? Clearing approx. 20 minutes; or more depending NY/NJ Port Authority--Continuous training and on nature of crash and involvement of injuries revision of policy OR DOT (9 tunnels)--Could take 1 h up to 8 h WA DOT--More specific training for operations NY/NJ Port Authority--Detection is continuous and maintenance staff. and almost instantaneous VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Normally less than 20 min Section 4 Fire Detection, Fire Protection, 43. Do you have tow trucks in your agency or do you Communication contract out for theses services? 38. What kind of fire detection system does the tun- Have tow trucks--14 nel have? (Please check all that apply.) Contract out for tow trucks--10 Heat Detection (linear)--4 Other (Please explain)--6 Heat Detection (other than linear)--0 Smoke Detection--0 44. Are you concerned that your tunnel may not have Pull Station--14 an adequate fire/life safety system to manage a CCTV--18 significant fire event? Please explain. Video surveillance technology--4 No--12 Phones--16 Yes--19 Other (Please explain)--0 Section 5 Design 39. What kind of fire protection system does the tun- nel have? (Please check all that apply.) 45. Does your agency have their own standard for Fire hydrants along the tunnel--11 tunnel design and for fire rating? Standpipe system with fire hose connections Yes--3 (dry or wet)--17 No--28 Fire extinguishers in the tunnel--20 Other (Please explain)--0

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141 46. What guidance and standards are provided to OR DOT (9 tunnels)--None designers to address the fire design issues for NY/NJ Port Authority--Coordinate with agency new and for retrofitted tunnels? (Please check all staff, other agency facilities, police at all levels, that apply.) other agencies, OEM, and local authorities. NFPA 502--23 VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--All traffic is held at the toll ASHRAE--0 plazas and emergency crewmen stop traffic at the FHWA--22 mouth of the tunnel. Other (Please explain)--6 CA DOT (6 tunnel)--Standard traffic operations, including traffic control and law enforcement 47. Do you specify the design fire size and fire curve to the designers? (Please check all that apply.) 53. Do you have an emergency response plan in place? Fire Size--9 Yes--31 Fire Curve--0 No--0 Require to follow the NFPA 502--17 Other (Please explain)--0 Leave it up to the Consultant--11 Leave it up to the Authority Having Jurisdiction 54. Which agency has the role of incident commander? (AHJ)--7 VA DOT (7 tunnels)--State police or local responders Other (Please explain)--1 PA DOT (2 tunnels)--local EMS/state police MD (2 tunnels)--We are the incident commanders. 48. Is security blast design included in the OR DOT (9 tunnels)--Oregon DOT requirements? (Please check all that apply.) NY/NJ Port Authority--Depends on emergency and Security--9 location Blast design--0 VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Operations Security and blast design--1 CA DOT (6 tunnels)--State and fire responders WA DOT--Local fire department 49. Who is the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)? Our Agency--25 55. What best practices can you share in the areas of Fire Department--6 prevention, mitigation, and recovery from fire Don't know--0 incidence? Other (Please explain)--0 VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Perform "after-incident" reviews 50. Do you apply a risk assessment approach for fire MD (2 tunnels)--Mitigation/recovery--Work engineering? closely with local fire departments; our staff Yes--10 that does towing, and contract towers to quickly No--20 extinguish the fire and get the burned vehicle, Other (Please explain)--0 and maintenance staff to clean up debris. OR DOT (9 tunnels)--None 51. How do you handle specific risk that cannot be NY/NJ Port Authority--All if permission and mitigated? non-disclosure agreements are granted MD (2 tunnels)--Response and recovery plans NY/NJ Port Authority--Conduct series of "table 56. Would you consider protection of the tunnel with top" drills with agency staff, OEM, and local the fixed fire suppression system (sprinkler system) authorities to meet the new NFPA 502 Max Fire Heat Release CA DOT (6 tunnels)--Engineering judgment with Rate Requirements, if proven effective? AHJ approval Yes--16 No--6 52. What traffic management and safety innovations Other (Please explain)--9 are deployed or planned to minimize or eliminate problems such as congestion and traffic manage- 57. Have you identified gaps in research and design for ment during a fire? tunnel fire safety, or fire detection and protection? PA DOT (2 tunnels)--Detours are in place No--29 MD (2 tunnels)--Traffic is held prior to entering the Yes (Please explain)--2 impacted tunnels as soon as a fire is reported. Detour routes are pre-planned and signed. All 58. Can you suggest strategies to eliminate the gaps entry points to the tunnel throughway have and improve tunnel fire safety? dynamic message signs and traffic is warned MD (2 tunnels)--Consider co-development of prior to entering when major incidents impact specifications (industry standards) for the devices the tunnel. along with the fire-code requirements such that

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142 reliable and maintainable devices are commercially VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Emergency response manuals available that are designed for the tunnel environ- are posted in each tunnel's control room and staff ment. Consider the typical tunnel cleaning/ are expected to be familiar with the manuals. washing operation, chemicals and pollutants PA DOT (2 tunnels)--Yearly review with first present, and dirt/debris build up (e.g., locating a responders commercially available pull station system for the MD (2 tunnels)--Quarterly meetings with local fire roadway tunnel application that is reliable over a department, Authority Police and Authority long time period has proven difficult). Maintenance Operations staff. OR DOT (9 tunnels)--ODOT has an emergency 59. Would you consider a fire event to be similar to a drill every two years for first responders. seismic event for design purposes? (Example NY/NJ Port Authority--Bi-annual fire response design for the fire event which has a high simulation in the tunnel probability to happen once in 500 years or VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Monthly safety meetings 2,500 years?) CA DOT (6 tunnels)--No formal tunnel fire training; Yes--22 department staff are required to adhere to require- No--12 ments of department safety manual and procedures. Other (Please explain)--1 WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Very little 60. What is this tunnel life's expectancy? 64. Would you need additional training tools for VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Design life is 50 years; operators to manage a fire? however, life expectancy typically exceeds Tunnel fire/systems simulator--19 100 years. No--11 PA DOT (2 tunnels)--150 years Other (please explain)--0 MD (2 tunnels)--100 years is the accepted life expectancy 65. What equipment and materials are pre-positioned OR DOT (9 tunnels)--100 years for response and recovery to a fire, such as for VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Depends on the amount the quick removal of disabled vehicles? of maintenance performed VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Wreckers equipped with materials to contain spills. 61. Do you have any additional suggestions and PA DOT (1 tunnel)--Tow trucks on site thoughts on the design for fire emergency? PA DOT (1 tunnel)--None PA DOT (2 tunnels)--see T-20's work MD (2 tunnels)--Tow vehicles are present on site. NY/NJ Port Authority--Not at this time Fire extinguishers. OR DOT (9 tunnels)--None 62. Please identify any research that you would like NY/NJ Port Authority--Equipped emergency to see performed to help in the implementation response vehicle and towing vehicles of fire safety systems. VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Wreckers and fire trucks PA DOT (2 tunnels)--see T-20's work are at the end of each tunnel MD (2 tunnels)--Dirt build up in the fresh air CA DOT (5 tunnels)--1. fire extinguishers; supply ducts. When fans moved to high for 2. operations center monitors CCTV testing or during fires the dirt/dust gets blown up. CA DOT (1 tunnel)--None This resembles smoke on CCTV images and it WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Incident response trucks for reduces visibility. It is unknown if this causes removal of debris and disabled vehicles. other concerns for either the public or emergency responders. 66. What is considered an acceptable response time? OR DOT (9 tunnels)--We need a national design VA DOT (7 tunnels)--1015 minutes fire size, duration, and heat rating. PA DOT (1 tunnel)--<3 min tow truck, <10 min EMS NY/NJ Port Authority--Implementation of a Foam PA DOT (1 tunnel)--less than 5 min, EMS less than Delivery System 10 min MD (2 tunnels)--35 minutes OR DOT (9 tunnels)--20 minutes Section 6 Operation, Maintenance, Repair, VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--5 minutes Rehabilitation WA DOT (2 tunnels)--35 minutes 63. What types of exercises and other training are 67. How often are tunnels and emergency response provided to staff and first responders to ensure equipment inspected and tested? proficiency in response to an incident and how is PA DOT (1 tunnel)--Daily the training evaluated? MD (2 tunnels)--Quarterly

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143 VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Once every 8 hours 71. What are the operational protocols for the use of CA DOT (6 tunnels)--CO monitors--yearly; fire the ventilation system during a fire event? standpipes--5 years VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Control room personnel WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Varies depending on the identify location of fire (using touch screen) and equipment. Could be weekly or yearly or 5 years emergency ventilation modes are activated for structural items. accordingly. PA DOT (1 tunnel)--All fans are to be run on high 68. What methods are used to inspect the structural speed until directed otherwise by fire & rescue. integrity of the tunnel structure both routinely MD (2 tunnels)--The current control systems have and after a fire? What materials are used to been programmed with fire-response plans that repair concrete after a fire? automate the implementation of fire patterns. VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Visual inspection and sound- Operators can focus on coordinating the man- ing. Concrete is typically repaired with higher power using the CCTV to provide situational strength concrete. awareness and immediately develop scope and PA DOT (2 tunnel)--a) bridge inspectors are called scale needs for the emergency response. Opera- to use techniques used during a bridge inspection. tors also can access the regional ITS to imple- b) concrete; shotcrete ment appropriate traffic controls and warnings. MD (2 tunnels)--Tunnels are inspected annually as VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Operations at the incident part of our facility inspection program and are give requirements at the ventilation building for inspected by our structural engineers immediately each incident following a fire. CA DOT (6 tunnel)--automatic operation based on OR DOT (9 tunnels)--Sounding CO exposure limits with emergency override by VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--Consultant engineers responding AHJ inspect the tunnels every year. We have not had WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Fans will ramp up to draw to repair any fire damage. smoke and heat away from roadway. CA DOT (6 tunnels)--Structural inspection 2 years with visual inspection 72. How are the maintenance considerations worked into the design elements of tunnel fire detection 69. If you were to start a new tunnel project, what and fire suppression systems? key elements would you incorporate in the design PA DOT (1 tunnel)--Controls are put in an accessible and construction to aid you in tunnel fire inci- area. dent management? VA DOT (6 tunnels)--Sprinkler system and MD (2 tunnels)--Detections systems focus on traffic automatic fire detection system. flow. Fires in the roadway always impact traffic PA DOT (1 tunnel)--Nothing: fire department EMS and video based analytics detect abnormal traffic response time under 10 minutes conditions within seconds. We have found smoke PA DOT (1 tunnel)--Nothing: we have fire depts. very detection analytics to false alarm too much. Keep- close to our tunnels that can respond in 5 to 10 min. ing false alarm rates low (below 3040%) of total MD (2 tunnels)--All required elements from NFPA alarms is a must to maintain operator trust and 502. Control systems to automate fire pattern involvement. Fire suppression systems are acces- implementation. CCTV or other fire spread detec- sible for maintenance inspection and utilize heat tion in fresh air duct, sump pits, and exhaust air systems to address freezing issues. ducts. Public communications system (FM broad- CA DOT (6 tunnels)--There must be access for cast, PA system, electronic signs, or other means) maintenance to instruct the public caught behind the incident. WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Through a collaborative OR DOT (9 tunnels)--Detection equipment and process between Maintenance and Design offices video surveillance CA DOT (6 tunnels)--in accordance with NFPA 73. Do you actively screen or otherwise monitor truck 502 and AHJ cargoes entering the tunnel without disrupting the WA DOT (2 tunnels)--Mandatory fire system sim- traffic flow? ulator and monthly training for operations staff. Yes--15 No--15 70. Are the lighting and emergency communication Other (Please explain)--0 system designed to survive major fire events? Yes--11 74. What dangerous cargo is acceptable and how is No (please explain how to ensure safe evacuation this enforced? during an incident that involves major fires)--17 VA DOT (7 tunnels)--Voluntary inspections based Other (Please explain)--2 on truck placard information

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144 MD (2 tunnels)--Propane tanks 20 lb or larger are PART 2: INTERNATIONAL DATA not allowed. Gasoline tankers are not allowed. Section 1 Background Information Police monitor and enforce with tickets. OR DOT (8 tunnels)--Unrestricted. Signs are in place The first 15 questions were used so that the researchers could and restrictions are posted on the ODOT web page. contact the respondent for additional information, if neces- Law enforcement monitors occasionally. sary. All this information is shown below. OR DOT (1 tunnel)--Flammable cargo is not allowed in the Vista Ridge Tunnels. VA CBBT (2 tunnels)--No dangerous cargo is Section 2 General Information permitted. CA DOT (6 tunnels)--Traffic laws are required to Questions 16 and 17 were used to obtain the agency name enforce vehicle restrictions and the name of the tunnels, respectively. All this informa- WA DOT (2 tunnels)--All cargo tion is shown below. 75. What systems do you have plans for repair or 18. What year was the tunnel built or expected date replacement of fire or life safety equipment? of completion? (Please check all that apply.) See chart below Tunnel ventilation--8 Fire suppression--0 19. Is the tunnel under supervision? Standpipes--8 Yes, 24 hr--7 Fire detection--0 Yes, except at night--0 Communication--8 No--0 Emergency lighting--6 Other (Please explain)--0 20. What is the normal traffic operation? Uni-directional--6 Section 7 Follow-up Bi-directional--1 76. Please provide any additional information or sug- 21. When does the tunnel operate in bi-directional gestions you may have. mode? (Please check all that apply.) PA DOT (2 tunnels)--Please see info from Normally--2 AASHTO T-20 including the 2005 European At night time--0 Tunnel Scan and the 2009 Domestic Tunnel Scan Off peak hours--0 CA DOT (3 tunnels)--Gasoline Tankers--freely Occasionally--0 only from (3 a.m.5 a.m.) During Construction/Maintenance in Other tube--0 The last 2 questions were used so that the researchers could Never--4 contact the respondent for additional information, if necessary. Other (Please explain)--0 No. of Tunnel agency surveys name submitted No. of tunnels Year tunnel was built Korea Expressway 1) Jookryung 1) 2001 Corporation 2 2) Average data for 280 (555 tubes) 2) From 1970 till present (Korea) tunnels Mak Hungary M6 South Completed in March 2010 1 (Hungary) Ministre des Ville-Marie & Lafontaine 1976 and 1967 transports du 1 Qubec (Canada) Swedish Road Gota Tunnel 2006 1 Administration Sydney Harbour Sydney Harbour Tunnel 1992 Tunnel Company 1 (Australia) Vgverket Sdra Lnken 2004 1 (Sweden)

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145 22. What type of vehicles use the tunnel? (Please 28. Was there an investigation performed after check all that apply.) the fire? Cars--7 Every time--3 Buses--7 Occasionally, depending on fire size--1 Trucks--7 Never--0 HGV--5 Once (Please explain when)--1 Special Trucks (military)--3 Gasoline Tankers: freely--4 29. What was the estimated maximum fire size? Gasoline Tankers: supervised when tunnel is closed Swedish Road Administration: Sweden--8 MW for normal traffic--0 Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): Other Vehicles--1 South Korea--1 to 57 MW Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): Section 3 Fire Incidents Information Canada--20 MW Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--3 MW 23. How many annual vehicle fire incidents happen in this tunnel (average)? 30. What was the longest duration of the fire? No occurrence (Skip questions 918)--1 Vgverket: Sweden--20 min Happened once in lifetime--0 Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): Less than one every year--2 South Korea--120 min From 1 to 2 every year--2 Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South From 2 to 5 every year--0 Korea--25 min Happens at least once a month--0 Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 24. What were the most severe vehicle fire incidents in 2 bores): Canada--30 min this tunnel? (Please check all that apply.) Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Motorcycles fire--0 10 min Passenger car fire--2 Multiple passenger cars (24 vehicles)--0 31. Have you videotaped any car fire incidence? Vans--0 Vgverket: Sweden--No Bus--0 Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): Heavy goods truck fire--3 South Korea--Yes Multiple trucks fire--0 Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Tanker fire--0 Korea--Yes Alternative fuel vehicle--0 Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, Other--0 2 bores): Canada--Yes Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--Yes 25. Was there any damage made to this tunnel as a result of the fire incident? 32. Can you share the video information? No damages. No impact on tunnel operation--0 No damages. Tunnel was closed for operation for 30 33. Has your agency been successful in managing the min or more--1 fire event? (Please provide an explanation.) Minor damages (no structural damage)--3 No--0 Structural damage which required tunnel closure for Yes--5 an extended period of time--1 Partially--0 26. Were there any casualties from the fire? 34. Do you have an emergency response plan in place? None--4 Yes--6 Minor--0 Major--1 35. Please explain what are the strengths of your agency's fire management program? 27. Has the fire department ever been involved in Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): fire fighting in this tunnel? South Korea Never--0 1. Manualized procedure Occasionally--1 2. Skilled with fire drill Every time--4 3. Feedback from design and construction

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146 Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Standpipe system with fire hose connections Korea-- (dry or wet)--2 1. Manualized procedure Fire extinguishers in the tunnel--6 2. Skilled with fire drill Fire sprinkler system--3 3. Feedback from design and construction Foam system--1 Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, Fire apparatus in the tunnel--1 2 bores): Canada--Frequent fire simulation and proximity of firefighters 40. What kind of fire life safety system does this Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- tunnel have? (Please check all that apply.) Immediate use of a deluge system if required Tunnel ventilation--7 Emergency egress--6 36. What barriers or difficulties have you or your Egress pressurization--3 organization encountered in implementing fire Other (Please explain)--2 management? (Please check all that apply.) Technical (please explain)--0 41. What communication systems are used by rescue Political (please explain)--1 personnel and others for fire emergency? Legal (please explain)--0 Swedish Road Administration: Sweden-- Organizational/institutional (please explain)--1 Emergency phones and loudspeakers Staffing/resources (please explain)--1 Vgverket: Sweden--Radio and cell phones Other (please explain)--0 Mak Hungary: Hungary--Wall telephones every None--2 100 m Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): 37. What are your suggestions on how these barriers South Korea--Radio repeater can be overcome? Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): Mak Hungary: Hungary--We installed fire detec- South Korea--Radio repeater tion in the new tunnels with direct lines to the Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): Fire Brigade and installed fire hydrants every Canada--Radio 100 m. Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Radio and fire phones Korea-- Monitoring HGVs 42. Please explain how quickly your agency is able to Vehicle maintenance detect and clear routine traffic crashes inside this Installing smoke extraction tunnel? Escape route Swedish Road Administration: Sweden--Our Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): CCTV detects stopped vehicle in 30 seconds and Canada--Frequent training and debriefing. our assistance car or fire department are on place Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- in 10 minutes Blunt meetings Vgverket: Sweden--Detect in minutes. Cleared in 30 min or 60 if there are injuries Mak Hungary: Hungary--2 min Section 4 Fire Detection, Fire Protection, Communication Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South Korea--Detect in 2.2 min and clear in 54 min 38. What kind of fire detection system does the tunnel Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South have? (Please check all that applies.) Korea--Average detection time: 2.2 min Heat Detection (linear)--5 Average time to arrive at site: 8.7 min Heat Detection (other than linear)--2 Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, Smoke Detection--3 2 bores): Canada--15 min Pull Station--0 Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- CCTV--6 within 10 min Video surveillance technology--3 Phones--7 43. Do you have tow trucks in your agency or do you Other (Please explain)--4 contract out for theses services? 39. What kind of fire protection system does the Have tow trucks--0 tunnel have? (Please check all that apply.) Contract out for tow trucks--6 Fire Hydrants along the tunnel--5 Other (Please explain)--0

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147 44. Are you concerned that your tunnel may not 50. Do you apply a risk assessment approach for fire have an adequate fire/life safety system to engineering? manage a significant fire event? Please Yes--7 explain. No--0 Vgverket: Sweden--The problem is with congested Other (Please explain)--0 traffic. The fire safety design is based on a fire flow traffic, which travels faster than the smoke. 51. How do you handle specific risk that cannot be When there's risk of congestion, the tunnel entry mitigated? will shut down. Vgverket: Sweden--Improve the safety measures, Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South such as distance between exits, FFFS, traffic Korea--Little concern with hardware. Software control, etc. and skilled staff in charge is more important. Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--No Korea--Main goal is to minimize specific risk such as chemical tanker leak or explosive material. Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Section 5 Design Korea--Main goal is to minimize specific risk such as chemical tanker leak or explosive material. 45. Does your agency have their own standard for Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, tunnel design and for Fire Rating? 2 bores): Canada--When we can we eliminate Yes--4 the risk at the source; otherwise, we try to miti- No--3 gate by being prepared to intervene optimally. Other (Please explain)--0 Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Vigilance 46. What guidance and standards are provided to designers to address the fire design issues for 52. What traffic management and safety innovations new and for retrofitted tunnels? (Please check all are deployed or planned to minimize or eliminate that apply.) problems such as congestion and traffic manage- NFPA 502--1 ment during a fire? ASHRAE--0 Vgverket: Sweden--The tunnel entrances are shut FHWA--0 automatically, ramp metering are reducing traffic Other (Please explain)--5 (Tunnel04, European at the surface to let the cars leave the tunnel as Union, domestic regulation, PIARC) quickly as possible. Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South 47. Do you specify the design fire size and fire Korea--Entrance shut equipment, Lane control curve to the designers? (Please check all that system, Variable messaging sign by Patrol per- apply.) sonnel Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): Fire Size--4 South Korea--Entrance suspension equipment, Fire Curve--3 Lane control system, Variable messaging sign Required to follow the NFPA 502--1 control by patrol car Leave it up to the Consultant--2 Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, Leave it up to the Authority Having Jurisdiction 2 bores): Canada--ITS, detection, and (AHJ)--2 communications equipment Other (Please explain)--1 (Risk Analysis) Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Vigilance Waterscreen displaying a 7 4.5 m 48. Is security blast design included in the require- stop sign ments? (Please check all that apply.) Security--2 53. Do you have an emergency response plan in place? Blast Design--1 Yes--5 Security and Blast Design--2 No--0 Other (Please explain)--2 49. Who is the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)? 54. Which agency has the role of incident commander? Our agency--1 Vgverket: Sweden--fire brigade Fire department--3 Mak Hungary: Hungary--fire brigade Don't know--0 Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South Other (Please explain)--2 Korea--In cooperation with fire department

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148 Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South 60. What is this tunnel life's expectancy? Korea--In cooperation with fire department Swedish Road Administration--80 years Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, Vgverket: Sweden--100 years 2 bores): Canada--Firefighters Mak Hungary: Hungary--200 years Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--Fire Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): brigade once on site South Korea--50 to 100 years Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South 55. What best practices can you share in the areas of Korea--50 to 100 years prevention, mitigation, and recovery from fire Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, incidence? 2 bores): Canada--100 years Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): South Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Korea--From the case of Dalsung Tunnel acci- 100 years dent, which is explosion of missile propellant. Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South 61. Do you have any additional suggestions and Korea--Explosion of missile projectile case in thoughts on the design for fire emergency? Dalsung Tunnel Vgverket: Sweden--There are 100 m between >20 hours to re-open the emergency exits. The fire brigade can use >3 month to full recovery these to reach an accident and never have to take Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- the risk of entering the burning tunnel with their Video smoke detection. vehicles. Alert operators Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Deluge system Korea--Equipping extinguisher and respirator should be forced by law 56. Would you consider protection of the tunnel with the fixed fire suppression system (sprinkler system) to meet the new NFPA 502 Max Fire 62. Please identify any research that you would like Heat Release Rate Requirements, if proven to see performed to help in the implementation of effective? fire safety systems. Yes--4 Vgverket: Sweden--More research to develop the No--2 installations in a more cost-effective way Other (Please explain)--0 57. Have you identified gaps in research and Section 6 Operation, Maintenance, Repair, Rehabilitation design for tunnel fire safety, or fire detection and protection? 63. What types of exercises and other training are No--2 provided to staff and first responders to ensure Yes (Please explain)--4 proficiency in response to an incident and how is the training evaluated? 58. Can you suggest strategies to eliminate the gaps Vgverket: Sweden--The staff of the traffic com- and improve tunnel fire safety? mand centre have annual exercises to handle a Vgverket: Sweden--More research to develop the installations in a more cost-effective way large accident. The personnel in the incident Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South response vehicles have a full fire fighter training Korea-- and annual exercises. Promotion (PR) Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Accident prevention Korea--Annual fire drill with fire department by Improvement of facilities manual, technical education, spot check, real fire Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- case evaluation Closer ties to other operators Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): Canada--Ventilation test with fire and 59. Would you consider a fire event to be similar to a smoke seismic event for design purposes? (Example Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- design for the fire event which has a high probabil- We burn cars in the tunnel to demonstrate the ity to happen once in 500 years or 2,500 years?) smoke, heat, and noise to our operators. This Yes--0 also enables the deluge and ventilation to be No--5 proven. All operators have to complete task Other (Please explain)--1 books on a regular basis.

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149 64. Would you need additional training tools for Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- operators to manage a fire? Consultants Tunnel Fire/Systems Simulator--4 No--2 69. If you were to start a new tunnel project, what Other (please explain)--1 key elements would you incorporate in the design and construction to aid you in tunnel fire 65. What equipment and materials are pre-positioned incident management? for response and recovery to a fire, such as for Vgverket: Sweden--Traffic control on the the quick removal of disabled vehicles? surface around the tunnel, to insure that Vgverket: Sweden--The incident response vehi- the traffic can get out of the tunnel system cles are positioned so that they can reach any part quickly. of the tunnel system within 5 minutes 24-7. The Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South tow trucks have a quick response time. Korea--smoke extraction in combination with Mak Hungary: Hungary--The fire brigade has their ventilation FFFS own container full of rescue equipment Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Deluge and clear identification of deluge Korea--Special equipment to tow for special zones trucks Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): 70. Are the lighting and emergency communication Canada--Towing trucks system designed to survive major fire events? Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--Two Yes--5 tow trucks during peak periods No (please explain how to ensure safe evacuation during an incident that involves major fires)--1 66. What is considered an acceptable response time? Other (Please explain)--0 Swedish Road Administration--10 min Vgverket: Sweden--5 min 71. What are the operational protocols for the Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): use of the ventilation system during a fire South Korea--10 to 15 min event? Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Vgverket: Sweden--Yes, the ventilation is very Korea--10 to 15 min important in case of a fire. Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): Mak Hungary: Hungary--Manual Canada--7 min Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia--Less Korea--Keep critical velocity after completion of than 2 min evacuation downstream of fire Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 67. How often are tunnels and emergency response 2 bores): Canada--Preprogrammed scenarios are equipment inspected and tested? operated and depend on the fire location, with Swedish Road Administration--Depends regard to the camera seeing the fire Vgverket: Sweden--Annually Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): Preprogrammed for single fire, multiple fire, and South Korea--At least once a month congested tunnel. Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Korea--At least once a month 72. How are the maintenance considerations Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, worked into the design elements of tunnel fire 2 bores): Canada--2 times a year detection and fire suppression systems? Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Vgverket: Sweden--No key parts in the traffic Every 6 months tunnel, as much maintenance as possible should be carried out in technical rooms and emergency 68. What methods are used to inspect the structural exits. integrity of the tunnel structure both routinely Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South and after a fire? What materials are used to Korea--Every result of maintenance, fire drill, and repair concrete after a fire? fire accident are considered into design. For Vgverket: Sweden--The road authority provides example, corrosion problems of metals in the specialists after an incident. There are maintenance tunnel, false alarm of FFFS, etc. done in the tunnels every month, and the tunnel Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- structures are checked after a time schedule. Video smoke detection does not require access

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150 to the tunnel. Cameras must be located at about 75. What systems do you have plans for repair or 60 m intervals replacement of fire or life safety equipment? (Please check all that apply.) 73. Do you actively screen or otherwise monitor truck Tunnel ventilation--0 cargoes entering the tunnel without disrupting the Fire suppression--0 traffic flow? Standpipes--1 Yes--1 Fire detection--0 No--5 Communication--0 Other (Please explain)--0 Emergency lighting--0 Other (Please explain)--0 74. What dangerous cargo is acceptable and how is this enforced? Vgverket: Sweden--All types of cargo at night, no Section 7 Follow-up explosive cargo at daytime. Korea Expressway Corporation (280 tunnels): 76. Please provide any additional information or South Korea--No restriction suggestions you may have. Korea Expressway Corporation (1 tunnel): South Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- Korea--No restriction of material. Only loading Provide good training to good operators with the method is restricted. right tools to do the job Ministre des transports du Qubec (1 tunnel, 2 bores): Canada-- The last two questions were used so that the researchers Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company: Australia-- could contact the respondent for additional information, if None, government agency responsibility necessary.