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15 Develop a control center to receive and process the L-SURF information transmitted by equipped HGVs or by infra- structure-based electronic systems (when the vehicles Large Scale Underground Research Facility on Safety and are not equipped). The preventive actions consist of Security (L-surF) studied safety and security in enclosed access controls at the entry point. underground spaces of high importance for tunnel fires, terror Develop "Tele-Control" of the equipped vehicle through attacks in metros, and so forth from March 2005 to May 2008 automatic actuation of the recommended speed. The (17). However, the European Union's (EU's) competence project will study the possibility of installing an infra- related to safety and security is largely unstructured, frag- structure system inside the tunnel capable of showing a mented, and mostly national oriented. Especially missing is a light beam, which drivers of unequipped vehicles must large-scale research facility and the coordination and synergy follow. of existing facilities. Within the design study for L-surF, all relevant aspects for such a facility were elaborated to a level A thermal check system aims at identifying overheated that the facility could be established, at least as a legal entity vehicles before they enter the tunnel. This thermal gate, located with the necessary structures and activities. Preliminary con- before the toll station, is composed of an automatic gate with cepts and plans for the physical construction are described. infrared sensors and a portable system for checking vehicles L-surF is a design study within the Sixth Framework Program with anomalous heating situations. of the European Community and involves the cooperation of five of Europe's leading institutions on safety and security for The thermal gate performs the following operations: underground facilities in Switzerland, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, and France. Acquisition of infrared images. Image processing to detect possible hot spots. EGSISTES Activation of a warning if the hot spot exceeds a threshold. EGSISTES, a French project funded by the National Research Stops the suspect vehicles. Agency, is a global evaluation of intrinsic safety and security for underground transport systems. It is a 3-year project dedi- EUROTAP cated to the evaluation of global security in underground infra- structures (January 2007 to January 2010). EGSISTES includes EuroTAP is the European Tunnel Assessment Programme three work packages: (15), a program that checks the safety of existing European tunnels. The original 1999 checklist has been enhanced 1. Vulnerability analysis regularly by following these basic rules and opinions: Risk analysis and Accidental risk and threat. German regulations RABT 2003 (directives on the 2. Knowledge improvement and model development for equipment and operation of road tunnels). consequences evaluation Recommendations of UNECE (United Nations Eco- Experimental approach (fire, explosion, gas disper- nomic Commission for Europe) expert group on the sion) and safety of road tunnels, December 2001. Numerical simulation (one-dimensional and three- Opinions of PIARC (World Road Association) and dimensional numerical tools). CEDR (Conference of European Directors of Roads). 3. Existing tools capability evaluation. EU Directive 2004/54/EC (16). National rules of the six major European tunnel states: One the most important projects at the European level is the Italy, Austria, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and HySafe network of excellence (18, 19) and projects such as Switzerland. HyTunnel and InsHyde, which were directly addressing the safety of hydrogen vehicles in confined spaces. In addition, a By 2004, a total of 144 tunnels had been tested. HyApproval project goal is to make a "handbook for approval of Hydrogen refueling stations" that will be used to certify SOLIT public hydrogen filling stations in Europe. The Safety of Life in Tunnels (SOLIT) project was spon- The objectives of the HyTunnel project were to: sored by the German government. More than 50 large- scale tests were performed. Extrapolating from free-burn Review tunnel regulations, standards, and practice with data, researchers calculated that the fire load of an HGV respect to the management of hazards and emergencies, with idle pallets could grow to 180 MW (614 MBtu/hr). such as the European Community directive. Water mist systems reduced the HRR to 20 to 50 MW Identify appropriate accident scenarios for further (68171 MBtu/hr). investigation.