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16 Review previously published experimental and model- The most important recent international projects were: ing work. Extend the understanding of hydrogen hazards inside tun- UPTUN nels by physical experiments and numerical modeling. Development of innovative technologies. Focus Suggest guidelines for the safe introduction of hydrogen- was on technologies in the areas of detection and powered vehicles into tunnels. monitoring, mitigating measures, influencing human response, and protection against structural damage. During the course of the project, ten experiments were per- The main output is a set of innovative cost-effective formed with hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG), as technologies. well as benchmark exercises for the numerical simulations. Development, demonstration, and promotion of pro- The small- and large-scale tests show the various combustion cedures for safety-level evaluation, including decision regimes according to the size of the cloud (air-hydrogen) and support models, as well as knowledge transfer. The the concentration of hydrogen in the mixture. main output was a risk-based evaluating and upgrad- ing model. In addition to the results gained, the HyTunnel project has FIT revealed needs for further research, in particular on the fol- Optimized research efforts to reach critical mass and lowing topics: enhance the impact at the European level by combin- ing the results of the different projects. Realistic scenarios in tunnels (release downwards Established a set of consultable databases with essen- under the vehicle) with delayed ignition of nonuniform tial knowledge on fire in tunnels. mixtures. Developed recommendations on design fires for Scientifically grounded requirements to the location tunnels. and parameters of PRD. Developed a European consensus for fire safe design Impinging jet fires and conjugating heat transfer in con- on the basis of existing national regulation, guide- ditions of blow down. lines, codes of practices, and safety requirements. Releases into congested space with Deflagration to Defined best practices for tunnel authorities and fire Detonation Transition (DDT). emergency services on prevention and training, acci- Development of hydrogen safety engineering method- dent management, and fire emergency operations. ology and applying it to a tunnel scenario. DARTS--Durable and Reliable Tunnel Structures. SafeT--developed guidelines for the safety of existing In general, the project improved the modeling of small releases tunnels by the prevention and mitigation of tunnel fire and led to a better understanding of the hydrogen dispersion effects. and combustion phenomena. The project delivered a 90-page SIRTAKI--Safety Improvement in Road and Rail Tun- document entitled Initial Guidance for Using Hydrogen in nels using an advanced intensive decision support system. Confined Spaces (19). Virtual Fires--developed a simulator that allows for the training of fire fighters in the efficient mitigation of tunnel SUMMARY fires, using a computer-generated virtual environment. Safe Tunnel with the basic goals of There are a number of recently completed and on-going proj- Increasing awareness of vehicle status to avoid tun- ects on tunnel safety and design for tunnel fires in the United nel access to those vehicles with detected or immi- States and Europe. Each project addresses different compo- nent anomalies. nents of design practice for tunnel fires. The findings of these Achieving tele-control surveillance of vehicle speed projects are essential for understanding fire dynamics in tunnels inside a tunnel. and for developing prevention and protection means against EuroTAP--European Tunnel Assessment Programme-- tunnel fires. The most important recent U.S. projects were: Inspection and testing of existing tunnels. SOLIT (Safety of Life in Tunnels)--with the goal of per- Prevention and Control of Highway Tunnel Fires forming fire load testing and study water mist systems in (FHWA-RD-83-032) (7 ). tunnels. Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure L-surF--Large Scale Underground Research Facility [NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86 (1)]. on Safety and Security. International Technology Scanning Program (Under- EGSISTES--a global evaluation of intrinsic safety and ground Transportation Systems in Europe: Safety, Oper- security for underground transport systems. HyTunnel ations, and Emergency Response) (2). and InsHyde directly address the safety of hydrogen National Tunnel Scan. vehicles in confined spaces.