Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 161


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 160
161 APPENDIX F Comparison of National and International Standards Requirements F1 Tunnel Ventilation This section provides comparison tables on tunnel ventilation requirements in different national and international standards. It covers Natural Ventilation (Table F1-1), Longitudinal Ventilation (Table F1-2), Transverse Ventilation (Table F1-3), and Emergency Exits Pressurization requirements (Table F1-4). TABLE F1-1 NATURAL VENTILATION (NFPA 502, 56, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 3.2.2 Arrangements for smoke ventilation will be required for tunnels in Circ2000- excess of the following lengths: 300 m (984.3 ft) in the case of urban tunnels, 63A2 500 m (1,640.4 ft) in the case of non-urban tunnels which are not for light traffic (...800 m or 2,624.7 ft provided that the absence of ventilation is compensated ...), 1,000 m (3,280.8 ft) for light traffic tunnels. Switzerland/ Natural ventilation (piston effect) is sufficient for bidirectional traffic tunnels Design < 200 m (656.2 ft) - one directional traffic tunnels several hundred meters decision/calculation see guideline "Ventilation of Road Tunnels" Switzerland/ Contains a decision system which of the three main categories--natural, Ventilation mechanical without extraction, mechanical with extraction--becomes necessary. Decision criteria are: - traffic type and volume - tunnel length - tunnel gradient It also contains parameters and methods for a detailed calculation of the chosen system. The calculation systems for normal and emergency case operation are described, including fire loads. Germany/ 2.3.3.3 .... In short tunnels it is less reasonable to control the smoke with RABT ventilators. For that reason tunnels shorter than 400 m (1,312.3 ft) resp. 600 m (1,968.5 ft) do not have fire ventilation... Austria/RVS RVS 9.261 Permitted if the fresh air demand during normal operation is ensured and the length of the escape routes is within the limits. Norway 601 ... For tunnels shorter than 250 m (820.2 ft) only safety equipment in terms of lighting is required. ... UK/BD78/99 5.13 In many short one-way tunnels, of up to 300 m (984.3 ft) length, the `piston effect' of vehicle induced air flow will provide satisfactory natural ventilation for normal environmental needs, also emergency evacuation routes to places of refuge can be made acceptably short ... 5.78 ... Except for shorter tunnels ..., a lack of positive control of smoke direction is not acceptable... Japan For tunnels over 1500 m for class AA tunnels, either ventilation system or parallel escape tube should be provided. NFPA 502 10.1.1* Emergency ventilation shall not be required in tunnels exceeding (2008 edition) 240 m (800 ft) in length, where it can be shown by an engineering analysis, using the design parameters for a particular tunnel (length, cross-section, grade, prevailing wind, traffic direction, types of cargoes, design fire size, etc.), that the level of safety provided by a mechanical ventilation system can be equaled or exceeded by enhancing the means of egress, the use of natural ventilation, or the use of smoke storage and shall be permitted only where approved by the authority having jurisdiction. I.1 Some short tunnels are ventilated naturally (without fans); however, such tunnels could necessitate a ventilation system to combat a fire emergency. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
162 TABLE F1-1 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline Netherlands/NL- 12.1 For tunnels shorter than 250 m (820.2 ft) mechanical ventilation is not Safe required. Due to the short time for escape it is important that the possibilities and measures (for escape) are sufficient in relation to the choice of natural ventilation. Tunnel constructions of more than >250 m (820.2 ft) and less than <500 m (1,640.4 ft) offer the possibility to opt for natural ventilation or mechanic ventilation. Tunnels longer than 500 m (1,640.4 ft) always need a mechanic ventilation system. 12.2 For natural ventilation the closed structure must be short or techniques of horizontal slots in the roof or dampers must be applied. TABLE F1-2 LONGITUDINAL VENTILATION (NFPA 502, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 3.2.2 ... Longitudinal ventilation is possible for non-urban one-way tunnels: Circ2000- up to a length of 5000 m (16,404.2 ft); urban one-way tunnels up to 500 m 63A2 (1,640.4 ft)...(for light traffic up to 800 m or 2,624.7 ft); non-urban two-way tunnels: up to 1000 m (3,280.8 ft) (for light traffic up to 1,500 m or 4,921.3 ft). Longitudinal ventilation is prohibited for urban two-way tunnels. The ventilation must be started up as soon as possible under conditions that will make it possible to achieve at least 3 m/s (591 fpm) in the direction of traffic movement. (For urban tunnels or two-way tunnels the ventilation control may be more delicate in order to maintain stratification). Switzerland/ Two types are described: Ventilation Longitudinal ventilation without extraction Longitudinal ventilation with extraction through a separate channel with steerable flaps Decision and calculation system, see guideline "Ventilation of Road Tunnels" Calculation data for jet fans are included Calculation data for extraction are included Calculation data for flaps are included Germany/RABT 2.3.5.1.2 ... In case of fire the longitudinal ventilation can ... be activated to control the velocity of the smoke. 2.3.3.3 ... For longer tunnels the smoke is discharged through openings in the ceiling at limited sections or blown in one direction from the site of the fire. Singular discharge can reduce the smoke spread for long tunnels. For longitudinal ventilation the traffic situation, the site of the fire, and the velocity of the tunnel air are decisive for the operation of the ventilation. For contraflow and congestion the use of longitudinal ventilation is only possible with limitations. For this reason a risk evaluation must be carried out for tunnel lengths over 600 m (1,968.5 ft)... 2.3.3.4 Critical air velocity 2.3 to 3.6 m/s (453 to 709 fpm) (indicated in a table depending on tunnel shape, gradient and fire output). Austria/RVS RVS 9.261 If natural ventilation does not ensure sufficient supply of fresh air or if the escape routes are above limits mechanical ventilation is necessary. Possible systems are longitudinal, semi transversal and transversal. For dimensioning of the system, normal operation phase and emergency (fire) operation phase must be taken into account. The three main aims are: - Enable self-rescue due to smoke prevention for a sufficient time and ventilation of escape tubes - Ensuring reasonable conditions for rescue staff - Reduction of damage to people, vehicles and tunnel structure A decision system based on risk factors, a catalogue of measures and special demands for each ventilation system are given. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
163 TABLE F1-2 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline Norway/Road 1004.21 Mechanical longitudinal ventilation is ... based on the use of impulse Tunnels fans. In long tunnels with heavy traffic, or where there are particular restrictions..., the use of ventilator shaft may be considered. 1005 ... the ventilation system shall also be designed to control a fire of 5 MW (17 MBtu/hr) or 20 MW (68 MBtu/hr) depending on the traffic volume...For tunnels with gradient <2% the net design air velocity shall be a minimum 2 m/s (394 fpm) for tunnels designed for car fires (5 MW or 17 MBtu/hr) and minimum 3.5 m/s (689 fpm) for HGV fires (20 MW or 68 MBtu/hr)... UK/BD78/99 For tunnels of between 300 to 400 m (984.3 to 1,312.3 ft) in length, mechanical ventilation plant will need to be considered with respect to fire smoke control, for example, where traffic is relatively light and/or gradients are not steep, the length of tunnel where mechanical ventilation plant is unlikely to be required may be increased to 400 m (1,312.3 ft). Mechanical ventilation is required for all longer (400 m or 1,312.3 ft and over) tunnels and for (200 m or 656 ft and over) tunnels on steep gradients or those subject to frequent congestion, either due to high usage or external traffic conditions... 5.16 Longitudinal ventilation is the simplest form of tunnel ventilation and because of lower capital and running cost benefits is often the first choice. ... 5.91 Fans for tunnel air control shall be reversible ... 5.22 Calculations of jet fan capacity shall take into account that air velocities shall be sufficient for control of fire smoke. The fans shall be capable of reverse operation ... 5.74 The initial velocity of smoke layer advance is about 1.3 m/s (256 fpm) for a 3 MW (10 MBtu/hr) car fire and 3.0 m/s (591 fpm) for a 25 MW (85 MBtu/hr) truck fire, depending on the tunnel geometry. A gasoline tanker fire of 50 to 100 MW (171 to 341 MBtu/hr) could generate a smoke velocity of 7.0 m/s (1,378 fpm) or more, which requires large and high cost ventilation plant provisions to be able to cope successfully. Ventilation normal provision for tunnel class AA, A, B, to be considered for C, D. Netherlands/NL- 12.1 Tunnels over 500 m (1,640.4 ft) always need a mechanical ventilation Safe system... Longitudinal ventilation is suitable for tunnels over 250 m (820.2 ft). 12.2 Longitudinal ventilation is applied only in tubes with one-directional traffic. The ventilation design has to take into account: the fire intensity, the location of the fire ..., influence of the wind, the resistance in ventilation by the vehicles, influence of the longitudinal slope on the draught. NFPA 502 10.2.4 In tunnels with unidirectional traffic where motorists are likely to be (2008 edition) located upstream of the fire site, the following objectives shall be met: (1) Longitudinal systems (a) Prevent backlayering by producing a longitudinal air velocity that is greater than the critical velocity in the direction of traffic flow. (b) Avoid disruption of the smoke layer initially by not operating jet fans that are located near the fire site. Operate fans that are farthest away from the site first. 10.4 Design Objectives. The design objectives of the emergency ventilation system shall be to control, to extract, or to control and extract, smoke and heated gases as follows: (2) Longitudinal airflow rates are produced to prevent backlayering of smoke in a path of egress away from a fire (Annex D provides methodology for Critical Velocity Calculations). EU/2004/54/EC 2.9.2 A mechanical ventilation system shall be installed in all tunnels longer than 1000 m (3,280.8 ft) with traffic volume higher than 2,000 vehicles per lane. 2.9.3 In tunnels with bidirectional and/or congested unidirectional traffic, longitudinal ventilation shall be allowed only if a risk analysis according to Article 13 shows it is acceptable and/or specific measures are taken, such as appropriate traffic management, shorter emergency exit distances, smoke exhausts at intervals.

OCR for page 160
164 TABLE F1-3 TRANSVERSE VENTILATION (20, 66) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 3.2.2 ...the objectives for transverse ventilation systems are to... retain a layer Circ2000- of pure air close to the roadway, and to extract smoke ... at roof level. Smoke 63A2 extraction...must be capable of being achieved over a distance of the order of 400 m (1,312 ft) in an urban tunnel and 600 m (1,968 ft) in a non-urban tunnel.... If fresh air blower blocks are more than 800 m (2,625 ft) long, provision must be made for the possibility of blowing fresh air into the lower part of the tunnel under all circumstances. This imposes a requirement for blower outlets at the base of the side walls and means for delivering fresh air to the duct feeding them at all times... The start-up of smoke extraction requires a human presence at all times, or an automatic system, which includes fire detection. When the tunnel has a human presence offering rapid and accurate control at all times it is most effective that smoke is extracted using smoke vents in the roof which are opened under remote control. Vents are placed per 50 m or 164 ft (not more than 100 m or 328 ft apart in non-urban tunnels). Switzerland/ Transversal ventilation with one fresh air channel and one extraction channel Ventilation with adjustable flaps. Germany/RABT 2.3.5.3 Today the only economical use of transverse ventilation is in cases of long tunnels... 2.3.5.2 Semi-transverse ventilation... the inlets are placed at the road level in regular distances 20 m 65.6 ft. Normally, the inflow velocity can be up to 10 m/s (2,000 fpm). However, it is not to exceed 3 m/s (591 fpm) when there is a fire. The polluted air is usually discharged through the portals... For long tunnels semi-transverse ventilation in sections (point extraction) can be an economical alternative to longitudinal ventilation... UK/BD78/99 5.30 Fully transverse ventilation is the most comprehensive form of mechanical ventilation, but because of its high capital and operational costs, is seldom adopted for new tunnels. 5.37 Semi transverse ventilation has frequently been used in UK tunnels at river crossings. Ventilation normal provision for tunnel class AA, A, B, to be considered for C, D. Netherlands/NL- 12.1 When ... traffic intensities and tunnel length increases, also the risk of Safe congestion increases in case of a (fire) accident. Transversal ventilation can become an alternative for this. Though warning is given to this transversal ventilation for its limited capacity of removing smoke and for its reliability. A better option would be the creation of open spaces in the tunnel (cutting the tunnel into several smaller parts). NFPA 502 10.2.4 In tunnels with unidirectional traffic where motorists are likely to be (2008 edition) located upstream of the fire site, the following objectives shall be met: (2) Transverse or reversible semi-transverse systems (a) Maximize the exhaust rate in the ventilation zone that contains the fire and minimize the amount of outside air that is introduced by a transverse system. (b) Create a longitudinal airflow in the direction of traffic flow by operating the upstream ventilation zone(s) in maximum supply and the downstream ventilation zone(s) in maximum exhaust. 10.4 Design Objectives. The design objectives of the emergency ventilation system shall be to control, to extract, or to control and extract, smoke and heated gases as follows: (1) A stream of noncontaminated air is provided to motorists in a path of egress away from a fire. EU/2004/54/EC 2.9.2 A mechanical ventilation system shall be installed in all tunnels longer than 1000 m (3,280 ft) with a traffic volume higher than 2,000 vehicles per lane. 2.9.4 Transverse or semi-transverse ventilation systems shall be used in tunnels where a mechanical ventilation system is necessary and longitudinal ventilation is not allowed according to 2.9.3. These systems shall be able to exhaust smoke in case of fire. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
165 TABLE F1-3 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline 2.9.5 For tunnels with bi-directional traffic, with a traffic volume higher than 2,000 vehicles per lane, longer than 3000 m (9,842 ft) and with a control centre and transverse and/or semi-transverse ventilation, the following minimum measures shall be taken as regards ventilation: Air and smoke extraction dampers shall be installed which can be operated separately or in groups. The longitudinal air velocity shall be monitored constantly and the steering process of the ventilation system (dampers, fans, etc.) adjusted accordingly. TABLE F1-4 EMERGENCY EXITS PRESSURIZATION (NFPA 502, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/Circ2000- 3.2.3 a) Communications between tubes: The airlocks provided in the 63A2 communication facilities between tubes must be provided with a ventilation system providing them with an excess pressure of approximately 80 Pa (0.0116 psi) with respect to the tube in which an incident or accident has occurred. b) Safety tunnel parallel to the tunnel: Whenever in use the tunnel is to be ventilated and the communication airlocks (or the tunnel itself in the absence of airlocks) is to have an excess pressure of approximately 80 Pa in comparison with the tunnel. c) Shelters: Shelters are to be equipped with a specific ventilation system. Air quality is to be maintained at all times by renewing the volume in the shelter three times per hour. Switzerland/ Separate guideline "Ventilation of Safety- and Cross-passages in Road Ventilation Tunnels." Germany/RABT 2.5.1.3 The escape routes must be kept free of smoke. For this purpose locks or overpressure are useful measures. UK/BD78/99 3.17 Cross passages and escape shafts ... require ventilation to maintain a supply of fresh air to the escape route and positive pressure or other provisions to exclude smoke from any fire within a traffic bore. Where two or more bores are linked by cross connections, the effect of opening one or more of those cross connection doors shall be considered. NFPA 502 (2008 7.14.1.1* The means of egress requirements for all road tunnels and those edition) roadways beneath air-right structures that the authority having jurisdiction determines are similar to a road tunnel shall be in accordance with NFPA 101, Chapter 7, except as modified by this standard. 7.14.2 Tenable Environment. A tenable environment shall be provided in the means of egress during the evacuation phase. 7.14.5.5 The force required to open the doors fully when applied to the latch side shall be as low as possible, but shall not exceed 222 N (50 lb). Netherlands/NL- 11.4 ... Escape tubes... must be safe ...control of a smokeless situation in Safe escape routes.

OCR for page 160
166 F2 Tunnel Ventilation Appendix F2 provides comparison tables on tunnel fire protection requirements in different national (including NFPA 502, 2008 edition) and international standards. It covers the fire fighting equipment (extinguisher, hose-reels, and so forth) and water requirements. TABLE F2-1 FIRE FIGHTING (PORTABLE EXTINGUISHER, HOSE-REELS, AND SO FORTH) AND WATER REQUIREMENTS (NFPA 502, 56, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/Circ2000- 3.5.1 Two standard portable extinguishers having a recommended unit 63A2 capacity of 6 kg (13.2 lb)... are to be located in the emergency recesses ... It is recommended that water with additive extinguishers should be used. 2.5 Fire-fighting equipment ...must preferably be located in recesses, which are separate from emergency recesses. 3.5.2 The provision of a water supply is not compulsory in non-urban tunnels less than 500 m (1,640 ft) long. In other circumstances, unless different arrangements are agreed by local authorities, a water pipe is to be installed. Fire-fighting equipment of the riser or hydrant type delivering 120 m3 (4,238 ft3) at a pressure of 0.6 MPa (87 psi) are to be installed approximately every 200 m (656 ft). In the case of a tunnel in which there is a change in level, a range of 0.4 to 0.8 MPa (58 to 116 psi) shall be accepted. The delivered flow from a hydrant must be 60 m3/h (264 gpm). Switzerland/ Two 6 kg (13.2 lb) fire extinguishers placed at each emergency telephone Design station, in bidirectional traffic tunnels every 150 m (492 ft), alternating on each side, in one directional traffic tunnels every 300 m (985 ft) on the outer side. Connection to the control room which indicates if a fire extinguisher is taken. Hydrants and pipes are not prescribed, but if they are installed the following parameters must be met: 20 L/sec (317 gpm), hydrants every 150 m (492 ft), reservoir 250 m3 (8,830 ft3). Germany/RABT 2.5.4.1 (For tunnels > 400 m or 1,312 ft) Two 6 kg (13.2 lb) (net) handheld extinguishers are placed at each emergency point (distance < 150 m or 492 ft). 2.5.4.2 Tunnels with length 600 m (1,968 ft) (400 m (1,312 ft) at high HGV traffic > 4,000 HGV km/tube/day) must be equipped with fire hydrant... the pipes shall be designed for 1200 L/min (317 gpm) at 6 to 10 bar (87 to 145 psi). The connectors are placed opposite the emergency points at distances less than 150 m (492 ft). For tunnels < 400 m (1,312 ft) fire hydrant shall be available at the portals. Austria/RVS RVS 9.233 Dimension of fire fighting equipment recess. RVS 9.281 Fire fighting equipment recesses are necessary in tunnels over 500 m. They have to be positioned just opposite the emergency telephone stations and half way between the emergency telephone stations. Thus they are on both sides with a = 250 m (820 ft). RVS 9.282 At each fire fighting equipment recess and at each emergency telephone station two extinguishers (6 L and 9 L) must be available. RVS 9.281 Water reservoir of 80 m3 (2,825.2 ft3), refilled in 24 h. RVS 9.282 Hydrants at each fire fighting equipment recess and at the portals fed through water main [dry pipe only for tunnels 500 to 1000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Necessary for category III and IV, recommended for all categories. Capacity 20 L/sec (317 gpm) for 1 h. Norway/Road 602.205 Fire extinguishers should be at least 6 kg (13.2 lb) ABC and must Tunnels be located in separate compartments. 602.1 Class B every 250 m (820 ft), C, D every 125 m (410 ft), E every 125 m (410 ft), F every 62.5 m (205 ft). 602.206 Possible solutions are: separate reservoirs (approximately 6 m3) in connection with the drainage system, a water tanker vehicle with sufficient capacity (approximately 6 m3 or 212 ft3) firewater reservoir at the low point of the tunnel. In special cases where pressurized water is easily available (e.g., in a tunnel located in a town) a continuous water main can be an alternative. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
167 TABLE F2-1 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline UK/BD78/99 3.26 ...Facilities for ...responding to a fire shall be provided to safeguard all areas of the tunnel including the tunnel services building. 3.12 Emergency Points ... shall be large enough to house fire-fighting facilities and emergency roadside telephones connected to... control centres.... The nominal spacing for emergency points is 50 m (164 ft), with emergency roadside telephones and fire hose reels... at 100 m (328 ft) intervals. Hand held fire extinguishers are normally provided in tunnel class AA, A, B. To be considered in class C. Pressurized Fire Hydrants normally provided in tunnel class AA, A, B, C, to be considered in class D. Germany/RABT 2.5.4.1 (For tunnels > 400 m or 1,312 ft) Two 6 kg (13.2 lb) (net) handheld extinguishers are placed at each emergency point (distance < 150 m or 492 ft). 2.5.4.2 Tunnels with length 600 m (1,968 ft) (400 m (1,312 ft) at high HGV traffic > 4,000 HGV km/tube/day) must be equipped with fire hydrant... the pipes shall be designed for 1200 L/min (317 gpm) at 6 to 10 bar (87 to 145 psi). The connectors are placed opposite the emergency points at distances less than 150 m (492 ft). For tunnels < 400 m (1,312 ft) fire hydrant shall be available at the portals. Austria/RVS RVS 9.233 Dimension of fire fighting equipment recess. RVS 9.281 Fire fighting equipment recesses are necessary in tunnels over 500 m. They have to be positioned just opposite the emergency telephone stations and half way between the emergency telephone stations. Thus they are on both sides with a = 250 m (820 ft). RVS 9.282 At each fire fighting equipment recess and at each emergency telephone station two extinguishers (6 L and 9 L) must be available. RVS 9.281 Water reservoir of 80 m3 (2,825.2 ft3), refilled in 24 h. RVS 9.282 Hydrants at each fire fighting equipment recess and at the portals fed through water main [dry pipe only for tunnels 500 to 1000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft)]. Necessary for category III and IV, recommended for all categories. Capacity 20 L/sec (317 gpm) for 1 h. Norway/Road 602.205 Fire extinguishers should be at least 6 kg (13.2 lb) ABC and must Tunnels be located in separate compartments. 602.1 Class B every 250 m (820 ft), C, D every 125 m (410 ft), E every 125 m (410 ft), F every 62.5 m (205 ft). 602.206 Possible solutions are: separate reservoirs (approximately 6 m3) in connection with the drainage system, a water tanker vehicle with sufficient capacity (approximately 6 m3 or 212 ft3) firewater reservoir at the low point of the tunnel. In special cases where pressurized water is easily available (e.g., in a tunnel located in a town) a continuous water main can be an alternative. UK/BD78/99 3.26 ...Facilities for ...responding to a fire shall be provided to safeguard all areas of the tunnel including the tunnel services building. 3.12 Emergency Points ... shall be large enough to house fire-fighting facilities and emergency roadside telephones connected to... control centres.... The nominal spacing for emergency points is 50 m (164 ft), with emergency roadside telephones and fire hose reels... at 100 m (328 ft) intervals. Hand held fire extinguishers are normally provided in tunnel class AA, A, B. To be considered in class C. Pressurized Fire Hydrants normally provided in tunnel class AA, A, B, C, to be considered in class D. Fire Hose Reels normally provided in tunnel class AA, to be considered in class A, B, C. 8.55 Automatic fire extinguishing systems are not considered suitable for the traffic space. Total flood gaseous systems and foam systems are not practical where people are present in vehicles. Water sprinkler systems may cool buoyant smoke causing immediate smoke logging of the tunnel and producing potentially explosive air/vapor mixes.

OCR for page 160
168 TABLE F2-1 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline Netherlands/NL- 15.1 nr. 2. For a tunnel there is no need for provisions of fire suppression by Safe tunnel users, except if the economic value of the tunnel asks for this. Then fire extinguishers are recommended under the condition that there is monitoring. 15.2 nr. 5 In tunnels of large economic value and with a mechanical. ventilation system, hose-reels are recommended. The distance between the hose-reels must be limited to 60 m (197 ft). 15.2 nr. 6 In first aid stations with hose-reels a fire extinguisher shall also be provided. 15.3 nr. 12A system of fire fighting consists of a distribution system (hose- reels), and possibly completed with a system to increase the water pressure and a system of water feeding. 15.3 nr. 13 If the tunnel has a large economical value consideration has to be made for the construction of a permanent installation for the increase of water pressure and a water reservoir. 15.2 nr. 7 A foaming substance shall be added to the extinguishing medium. 8.3 nr. 6c Fixed fire suppression mitigation systems as sprinklers can be used for mitigating the heating of the concrete and the reinforcement in the Netherlands sprinkler system is not yet applied because of disadvantages, though it will be applied in the tunnel of the `Betuwelijn.' Sweden In tunnels > 500 m there should be extinguishers at each portal and at least every 150 m. The extinguisher should meet SS-EN 3-7 requirements. They should contain 6 kg ABC powder and manage the test fires 34A and 183B. Hose connections required at each portal and at least every 150 m. PIARC The minimum content of 6 kg when the traffic includes mainly passenger cars. The maximum of 9 kg when heavy goods vehicles are numerous. Extinguisher removal alarms recommended. For tunnels from 200 to 1000 m long (case based), water supply requirement is 1000 L/min, 0.5 MPa (standpipe). Hydrants 1002000 m spacing. UNECE Fire extinguishers should be installed systematically in tunnels and in their entrances. Water supply shall be available for fire brigade. Australia Dry chemical extinguisher (equipment niche, 60 m spacing) and CO2 extinguishers adjacent to all electrical switchboards, control panels. Hydrants at 60 m spacing (hose reels). Hydrants with fittings located in each cabinet. Japan For tunnels Class D (>100 m) two 6 kg extinguishers at 50 m spacing required. For tunnels Class A or Class B (>1000 m) water supply requirement is 130 L/min, 0.17 MPa (1.7 kgf/cm2). Hydrants < 50 m spacing. Korea Two 3.3 kg (>3 Unit Capacity) extinguishers. <50 m spacing. Extinguisher removal alarms recorded. NFSC: For tunnels over 1000 m long water supply requirement is 130 L/min, 0.17 MPa (1.7 kgf/cm2). Hydrants < 50 m spacing. Minimum water discharge time: 20 min. GIST: For tunnels over 1000 m long water supply requirement is 190 L/min, 0.3 MPa (3 kgf/cm2) Hydrants < 50 m spacing. Minimum water discharge time: 40 min hose connections less than 50 m for tunnels class 2 or higher over 1000 m long. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
169 TABLE F2-1 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline NFPA 502 (2008 7.8.1 Portable fire extinguishers, with a rating of 2-A:20-B:C, shall be edition) located along the roadway in approved wall cabinets at intervals of not more than 90 m (300 ft). 7.8.2 To facilitate safe use by motorists, the maximum weight of each extinguisher shall be 9 kg (20 lb). 7.8.3 Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed, inspected, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 10. Annex J. Fire Apparatus. J.3 Extinguishers. Fire-fighting units should carry multipurpose, dry chemical extinguishers and an extinguishing agent for Class D metal fires. 7.7 Standpipe, Fire Hydrants, and Water Supply. Standpipe, fire hydrants, and water supply systems in road tunnels shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 9. 9.2.1 Wet standpipe systems (automatic or semiautomatic) shall be connected to an approved water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand for a minimum of 1 h. 9.2.2 Dry standpipe systems shall have an approved water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand for a minimum of 1 h. 9.4.1 Hose connections shall be spaced so that no location on the protected roadway is more than 45 m (150 ft) from the hose connection. 9.4.2 Hose connection spacing shall not exceed 85 m (275 ft). A.5.3 Where a municipal or privately owned waterworks system is available, consideration should be given to providing fire hydrants along limited access highways at spacing not to exceed 305 m (1,000 ft). The minimum required water supply for fire hydrants should not be less than 3,780 L/min (1,000 gpm) at 1.4 bar (20 psi) from each of two hydrants flowing simultaneously. EU/2004/54/EC 2.10.1 Emergency stations are intended to provide various items of safety equipment, in particular emergency telephones and extinguishers, but are not intended to protect road users from the effects of fire. 2.10.2 Emergency stations can consist of a box on the sidewall or preferably a recess in the sidewall. They shall be equipped with at least an emergency telephone and two fire extinguishers. 2.10.3 Emergency stations shall be provided near the portals and inside at intervals which for new tunnels shall not exceed 150 m (492 ft) and which in existing tunnels shall not exceed 250 m (820 ft). 2.11 Water supply. A water supply shall be provided for all tunnels. Hydrants shall be provided near the portals and inside at intervals which shall not exceed 250 m (820 ft). If a water supply is not available, it is mandatory to verify that sufficient water is provided otherwise.

OCR for page 160
170 F3 Tunnel Fire Detection Appendix F3 provides comparison tables on tunnel fire smoke detection requirements in different national (including NFPA 502, 2008 edition) and international standards. TABLE F3 FIRE/SMOKE DETECTION (VENTILATION SENSORS OR SPECIFIC FIRE DETECTION) (NFPA 502, 56, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 3.6 In tunnels where there is no permanent human supervision ... an Circ2000- automatic fire detection system is required, whenever the ventilation system, 63A2 which is used in the event of a fire, is not that which is automatically brought into use in the event of serious tunnel pollution... in other cases to be considered. Switzerland/ Automatic fire detection system which reacts to the degree of temperature as Design well as to temperature progress, able to detect a 100 L fuel fire. Connected to the control room and to the traffic signals, switching them on red in driving direction towards the fire. Switzerland/ If mechanical ventilation is applied an automatic smoke detection system is Ventilation obligatory. Distance between measurement point <300 m (984 ft) (see separate Guidelines Fire Detection). Germany/RABT 2.3.6 ... Ventilation sensors... 2.5.3.2 Automatic fire alarm equipment must be installed for tunnel length over 400 m (1,312 ft) and for tunnels with mechanical ventilation. 2.3.6... As guidance for the sensitivity of the fire detection: a fire of 5 MW (17 MBtu/hr) shall be observed within half a minute at up to 6 m/s (1,181 fpm) air velocity. The fire shall be localized with an accuracy of 50 m (164 ft). Austria/RVS RVS 9.282 Automatic fire detectors in operation rooms and lay by. Generally in the tunnel if there is a mechanical ventilation system. UK/BD78/99 Fire detection mentioned for sumps and service buildings only. Smoke detection. Netherlands/NL- 14.2 nr. 4 Apply a measurement of visibility for smoke detection... Safe 14.2 nr. 2 In tunnels with an automatic ventilation system; apply a measurement of visibility to determine the concentration of NO2. When the concentration is too high, the system has to activate the automatic ventilation system. 14.2 nr. 6 Consider the application of measurement of temperature to detect fire. 14.2 nr. 7 Consider the application of a detection system to detect high risk explosive gases. Korea GIST: Manual pull stations (push button) shall be installed around the hydrant cabinets or inside fire extinguisher cabinets spaced less than 50 m in tunnels over 500 m long. An automatic fire detection system is required in tunnels over 500 m long or Class 3 and higher in bi-directional tunnels and in urban tunnels, or in all other tunnels over 1000 m long or Class 2. In tunnels over 2000 m, installation of monitoring system equipped with CCTV should be considered for detection of smoke and flame from fires. In tunnels between 500 m and 1000 m automatic fire detection system can be replaced by the automatic incident detection system. Japan Manual pull stations (push button) recommended to be installed with emergency telephones spaced less than 50 m in tunnels longer than Class C. An automatic fire detection system applied in tunnels longer than 300 m if the traffic flow is high and tunnels equipped with ventilation system (Class A and higher). (continued on next page)

OCR for page 160
171 TABLE F3 (continued ) Country/ Requirement Guideline Sweden Alarm push buttons or emergency telephones should be coordinated with the escape routes. Should be installed on both sides of the tunnel tube if three lanes or more. Spacing shall be less than 150 m apart for all classes of tunnels. An automatic fire detection system is required in tunnels class TB and higher. NFPA 502 7.4.1 At least two systems to detect, identify, or locate a fire in a tunnel shall (2008 edition) be provided, including one manual, means meeting the requirements of 7.4.1.2 and either a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system in accordance with 7.4.1.3 or an automatic fire detection system in accordance with 7.4.1.4. 7.4.1.2.1 Manual fire alarm boxes mounted in NEMA Enclosure Type 4 (IP 65) or equivalent boxes shall be installed at intervals of not more than 90 m (300 ft) and at all cross-passages and means of egress from the tunnel. 7.4.1.2.5 The system shall be installed, inspected, and maintained in compliance with NFPA 72. 7.4.1.3.1 CCTVs with or without traffic-flow indication devices shall be permitted to identify fires in tunnels with 24-hour supervision. 7.4.1.4 Automatic Fire Detection Systems. 7.4.1.4.1 Automatic fire detection systems installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 72 shall be installed in tunnels where 24-hour supervision is not provided. 7.4.1.4.3 Where a fire detection system is installed in accordance with the requirements of 7.4.1.4.1, the system shall be for fire detection only. 7.4.1.4.4 Automatic fire detection systems shall be capable of identifying the location of the fire within 15 m (50 ft). 7.4.1.4.5 Spot detectors shall have a light that remains on until the device is reset. 7.4.1.4.6 CCTV systems used for automatic fire detection shall be permitted when listed for the intended purpose and installed in accordance with the manufacturers' requirements and NFPA 72. 7.4.1.4.7 Automatic fire detection systems within a tunnel shall be zoned to correspond with the tunnel ventilation zones where tunnel ventilation is provided. PIARC Push button alarms are optional. An automatic fire detection system can be useful in tunnels that are long or complicated, especially when dangerous goods are allowed or when it is necessary to precisely determine the fire location. They can be also helpful in unmanned tunnels with transverse or semi-transverse ventilation. EU/2004/54/EC 2.14.2 Automatic fire detection systems shall be installed in all tunnels, which do not have a control centre, where the operation of mechanical ventilation for smoke control is different from the automatic operation of ventilation for the control of pollutants.

OCR for page 160
172 F4 Tunnel Egress Appendix F4 provides comparison tables on tunnel egress requirements in different national and international standards. It covers Parallel Escape Tube (Table F4-1), Emergency Cross Passages (Table F4-2), Shelters (Table F4-3), and Direct Pedes- trian Emergency Exits (Table F4-4). TABLE F4-1 PARALLEL ESCAPE TUBE (NFPA 502, 56) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/Circ2000- 2.2.2 ... A safety tunnel parallel to the tunnel is only to be constructed if this 63A2 is justified for technical reasons (e.g., pilot tunnel)... Germany/RABT 2.5.1.3 Escape doors can lead to a rescue tunnel, which can be used by pedestrians. The tunnel can be parallel to traffic tunnel and various emergency exits from the tunnel can be connected to a common exit to the opening. The longitudinal slope shall not be more than 10%; the cross section shall be 2.25 m 2.25 m (7.4 ft x 7.4 ft). Austria/RVS The general safety concept shows two possibilities. - Limitation of escape routes (according to tunnel cross section) in combination with natural or longitudinal ventilation. - Transversal or semi-transversal ventilation with no limitation of escape routes. RVS 9.232 Dimension of escape routes 1.20 m x 2.20 m (3.9 ft x 7.2 ft), doors 1.0 m x 2.0 m (3.3 ft x 6.6 ft). RVS 9.281 Escape tubes for foot passengers or vehicles could be used to minimize the escape routes (see above). Dimensions are given. UK/BD78/99 2.38 ...A separate service tunnel...should be considered on a whole life cost basis...Such tunnels may also be used for evacuation purposes during an emergency. Netherlands/NL- 11.4 ...Escape tubes must have a minimal width of 1.20 m (3.9 ft). Safe Narrowing obstacles in escape tubes must be avoided as much as possible; the width here must still be 0.85 m (2.8 ft) minimal ....The escape route must be safe (no possible exits in smoking zones, no crossing of lanes with traffic) ...Avoiding danger of stumbling (no steps). Korea Required for tunnels over 3000 m with bi-directional traffic or risky uni- directional tunnels. Can be installed in tunnels over 1000 m long with bi- directional traffic or urban tunnels with expected congestion. Australia A separate egress tunnel should be provided in tunnels, particularly with bi- directional traffic, or in tunnels in which adjacent tunnel cannot be used for escape purposes. For unidirectional tunnels, escape to adjoining road tunnel can be considered; however traffic management of the adjoining tunnel is required Japan Required for tunnels class AA, and for tunnels class A >3000 m long with bi-directional traffic and longitudinal ventilation system. PIARC Escape corridor or escape gallery can be one of evacuation possibilities. NFPA 502 (2008) Not required EU/2004/54/EC 2.3.3 ... Examples of such emergency exits are... exits to an emergency gallery ....

OCR for page 160
173 TABLE F4-2 EMERGENCY CROSS PASSAGE (NFPA 502, 56, 77) Country / Requirement Guideline France/ 2.2 Arrangements for the evacuation and protection of users and emergency Circ2000- access ... shall be provided on a systematic basis and access shall be provided 63A2 approximately every 200 m (656 ft); a shorter spacing is to be used in tubes which are frequently congested and which have more than three lanes. In non- urban tunnels these arrangements are to be provided where lengths exceed 500 m (1,640 ft) and the spacing will be approximately 400 m (1,312 ft). 2.2.2 Communication between the (two) tubes represents a satisfactory arrangement ... provided that a single door does not provide access from the tube in which the incident or accident occurred and a traffic lane in the other tube. Switzerland/ In two tube tunnels cross passages for pedestrians every 300 m (984 ft), for Design vehicles every 900 m (2,953 ft). In tunnels with high frequency of dangerous goods vehicles the following have to be applied: Cross passages have to be equipped in order to stop fire spread to the other tube. Emergency exits to a lower level have to be equipped with a ramp instead of stairways. Switzerland/ Cross passages with length > 5 m (16.4 ft) need two doors. Ventilation Germany/ 2.5.1.3 Escape routes must be indicated and illuminated. RABT Tunnels 400 m (1,312 ft) must have emergency exits at regular distances 300 m (984 ft). The emergency exits can connect to the other tunnel tube directly or through a cross passage. Cross passages have doors in both ends. Austria/RVS RVS 9.233 Dimension and design of cross passages. RVS 9.281 Opposite each lay by (see S23) a cross passage for vehicles is situated (a = 1000 m or 3,280 ft). Additionally in tunnels without fire ventilation and in tunnels with a longitudinal gradient >3% a foot passenger cross passage is situated at each emergency call station (a = 250 m or 820 ft). Norway/Road 409 Cross passages. In tunnels with two parallel tubes pedestrian cross Tunnels passages between the tubes shall be arranged for escape. These shall be located for every 250 m (820 ft)... 602.1 Pedestrian cross passages are required for tunnel class E and F. UK/BD78/99 3.16 Escape Routes: In twin bore tunnels, passenger escape routes through fire doors positioned in central walls or cross-connecting passages, shall be provided. These shall be positioned at 100 m (328 ft) nominal intervals... 5.13 (100 m or 328 ft preferred limit, 150 m or 492 ft maximum limit). 3.17 Tunnel Cross Connections: Tunnel cross connections are generally of three types: i. A single set of fire doors in the partition wall between two traffic bores, ii. A cross passage with fire doors at both ends providing a safe refuge and an escape route from one bore to the other, iii. Normal provision for class AA, to be considered in class A and B. Netherlands/ 11.4 Exit-doors for escape are necessary when the distance to open area is too NL-Safe long. Distance between those exit doors must be determined by quantitative risk analysis. Korea GIST: For tunnels over 500 m long or bi-directional tunnels with a parallel escape tube spacing between cross passages shall not exceed 250 m. For tunnels less than 1200 m long, spacing can be less than 300 m.

OCR for page 160
174 TABLE F4-2 (continued ) Country / Requirement Guideline Japan For uni-directional tunnels over 750 m long spacing shall not exceed 750 m; for bi-directional tunnels over 400 m long spacing shall not exceed 350 m. The actual installation distance is 200300 m Sweden For all tunnels spacing shall not exceed 150 m. The time for escape to portal, escape route, or other safe haven must not be longer than the tunnel can evacuate before the conditions become critical. The gradient of an escape route cannot be higher than 8%. Class TA should have increased fire protection; e.g., shorter distance between escape routes. PIARC The most common escape route in two tube tunnels is a connection (cross passage) between the two tubes. The distance between connections should depend on traffic density and emergency rescue scenarios; for instance 100200 m in cities. NFPA 502 7.14.7.1 Where tunnels are divided by a minimum of 2-hour fire-rated (2008) construction or where tunnels are in twin bores, cross passageways between the tunnels shall be permitted to be utilized in lieu of emergency exits. 7.14.7.2 The following requirements shall be met: (1) Cross passageways shall not be farther than 200 m (656 ft) apart. (2) An emergency egress walkway with a minimum clear width of 1.12 m (3.6 ft) shall be provided on each side of the cross passageways. (a) Walkways shall be protected from oncoming traffic by either a curb, a change in elevation, or a barrier. (b) Walkways shall be continuous the entire length of the tunnel, terminating at surface grade. (c) Raised walkways in tunnels shall have guards in accordance with NFPA 101. (d) Intermediate rails shall not be required for walkway guards. (3) Where portals of the tunnel are below surface grade, surface grade shall be made accessible by a stair, vehicle ramp, or pedestrian ramp. EU/2004/54/EC 2.3.3. Emergency exits allow tunnel users to leave the tunnel without their vehicles and reach a safe place in the event of an accident or a fire and also provide access on foot to the tunnel for emergency services. Examples of such emergency exits are: direct exits from the tunnel to the outside, cross connections between tunnel tubes, exits to an emergency gallery, shelters with an escape route separate from the tunnel tube. 2.3.4. Shelters without an exit leading to escape routes to the opening shall not be built. 2.3.5. Emergency exits shall be provided if an analysis of relevant risks, including how far and how quickly smoke travels under local conditions, shows that the ventilation and other safety provisions are insufficient to ensure the safety of road users. 2.3.6. In any event, in new tunnels, emergency exits shall be provided where the traffic volume is higher than 2,000 vehicles per lane. 2.3.7. In existing tunnels longer than 1000 m (3,280 ft), with a traffic volume higher than 2,000 vehicles per lane, the feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of new emergency exits shall be evaluated. 2.3.8. Where emergency exits are provided, the distance between two emergency exits shall not exceed 500 m (1,640 ft). 2.3.9. Appropriate means, such as doors, shall be used to prevent smoke and heat from reaching the escape routes behind the emergency exit, so that the tunnel users can safely reach the outside and the emergency services can have access to the tunnel.

OCR for page 160
175 TABLE F4-3 SHELTERS (NFPA 502) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.2.2...Whenever none of the preceding arrangements apply, shelters are to Circ2000- be built to offer users a safe place while they await evacuation. Each shelter 63A2 shall have a surface area of at least 50 m2 (538 ft2)... Shelters must be connected to the exterior of the tunnel by an access-way, which is protected from fire and intended for emergency purposes. UK/BD78/99 3.16 ... Single bore tunnel escape route and safe refuge requirements shall be examined and established by the Design Organization from first principles, to the agreement of the TDSCG. NFPA 502 (2008 Not required edition) EU/2004/54/EC 2.3.3.... Examples of such emergency exits are... shelters with an escape route separate from the tunnel tube. 2.3.4 Shelters without an exit leading to escape routes to the open shall not be built. TABLE F4-4 DIRECT PEDESTRIAN EXITS (NFPA 502, 77) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.2.1 In the case of tunnels where the roadway is less than 15 m (49.2 ft) from Circ2000- the ground surface ...the facilities for the evacuation and protection of users 63A2 and emergency access shall consist of direct communication with the exterior. Accessible to pedestrians only, these communication facilities must have a minimum width of 1.40 m (4.6 ft) and a height of 2.20 m (7.2 ft). ... Germany/RABT 2.5.1.3. The escape doors can connect directly to the open or to evacuation shafts, which are vertical structures for escape routes with stairways leading to the open. Stairways must be a minimum of 1.5 m (4.9 ft) wide. At the design of shafts the limited physical performance of disabled and elderly people will have to be considered. UK/BD78/99 3.17 Tunnel cross connections are generally of three types: i..., ii..., iii. Access doors to a central escape shaft or passage, leading to a safe exit. Netherlands/NL- 11.4 Avoid staircases where possible. When necessary to provide, then Safe minimum width: 0.7 m (2.3 ft)/minimum height: 1.9 m (6.2 ft). NFPA 502 7.14.6.1 Emergency exits shall be provided throughout the tunnel spaced not (2008 edition) more than 300 m (1,000 ft) apart. 7.14.6.2 The emergency exits shall be enclosed in a minimum 2-hour fire- rated enclosure having a Class A interior finish as defined in NFPA 101 (see also cross passages requirements). EU/2004/54/EC 2.3.3... Examples of such emergency exits are...direct exits from the tunnel to the outside...

OCR for page 160
176 F5 Tunnel Incident Response Appendix F5 provides comparison tables on tunnel incident response requirements in different national and international stan- dards. It covers a Separate Emergency Vehicle Gallery Access (Table F5-1), Cross Passage Rescue Vehicular Access (Table F5- 2), Emergency Lane (Table F5-3), Direct Pedestrian Emergency Access (lateral upstairs shaft) (Table F5-4), Turning Areas (Table F5-5), and Emergency Services Station at Portals (Table F5-6). TABLE F5-1 SEPARATE EMERGENCY VEHICLE GALLERY ACCESS (NFPA 502) Country/ Requirement Guideline NFPA 502 Not required (2008 edition) France/ 2.2.2 In tunnels more than 5000 m (3.1 mi) long, which are not light traffic tunnels, Circ2000- the safety tunnel parallel to the tunnel or the access-ways providing access to the 63A2 shelters must be capable of being used by the motor-driven equipment. Germany/ 2.5.1.3 In exceptional cases it can be reasonable to construct the evacuation tunnel RABT so that it can be used by rescue vehicles. This may be relevant for tunnels longer than 300 m (984 ft) with high traffic load. The need for this arrangement shall be documented as part of safety concept. Austria/ RVS 9.281 Could be used to minimize the ways for rescue staff. According to this, RVS the tunnel category could be influenced. TABLE F5-2 CROSS PASSAGE RESCUE VEHICULAR ACCESS (NFPA 502, 56) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.3.1...In tunnels more than 1000 m (3,280 ft) long, provision must be made Circ2000- at approximately every 800 m (2,625 ft) for the passage of emergency 63A2 vehicles from one tube to the other if there are two tubes ... Germany/RABT 2.5.1.3. ... For two tube tunnels every third cross passage can be constructed for the use of fire fighting and rescue vehicles, in case this is required by the safety and rescue concept. ... Austria/RVS RVS 9.233 Dimension and design of cross passages. RVS 9.281 At every second emergency call station (a = 500 m or 1,640 ft) a cross passage for rescue staff vehicles is situated. Korea GIST: For tunnels over 500 m long or bi-directional tunnels with a parallel escape tube spacing for ambulances shall not exceed 750 m. NFPA 502 (2008 Not required edition) EU/2004/54/EC 2.4.1 In twin-tube tunnels where the tubes are at the same level or nearly, cross connections shall be suitable for the use of emergency services at least every 1500 m (4,921 ft).

OCR for page 160
177 TABLE F5-3 EMERGENCY LANE (NFPA 502) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.1.1 - Emergency vehicle access widths. If traffic is one-way, the transverse Circ2000- profile must be designed to permit access by emergency vehicles, including in 63A2 the normal traffic direction, when there are stopped vehicles on the nominal number of traffic lanes. Exceptions... if there is direct communication with the exterior... - if there is access to a second tube ... and also if the traffic can easily be interrupted in the second tube... Switzerland/ In bidirectional traffic tunnels > 1.5 km (4,921 ft) emergency bays every 600 Design to 900 m (1,968 ft), alternating on each side, every 2 to 3 km turning bays (6,562 to 9,842 ft). Design of emergency bay. Germany/RABT 2.5.1.1 Under certain economical and traffic conditions it can be reasonable to have an emergency lane--to be evaluated and documented... 2.5.1.2 Emergency bays shall be considered when the construction of emergency lanes is not reasonable. They are required at a tunnel length of 600900 m (1,968 to 2,953 ft)... The distance shall be 600 m (1,968 ft) in each traffic direction. Austria/RVS RVS 9.232 Necessity and dimensions of emergency lanes in accordance to speed, traffic volume, number of lanes, and traffic regulation systems. RVS 9.233 Dimension and design of lay by. RVS 9.281 Lay by a = 1000 m (3,280 ft), in tunnels with two directional traffic on both sides, positioned together with emergency call. NFPA 502 Not required (2008 edition) UK/BD78/99 3.14 Due to the high costs involved there are very few examples of continuous emergency stopping lanes within tunnels. However, additional lane width or widened verges provide a temporary expedient for traffic to be able to pass a stranded vehicle.... The first priority and whole basis of safe tunnel operation must always be to remove, as a matter of urgency, any obstacle to unrestricted lane use. Normal provision for tunnel class AA, A, B. TABLE F5-4 DIRECT PEDESTRIAN ACCESS (LATERAL, UPSTAIRS, SHAFT) (NFPA 502) Country/ Requirement Guideline Netherlands/NL- 11.3 To support the rescue teams it is strongly recommended to locate the Safe escape doors (from two tubes to the escape tube in the middle) opposite to one another. Appendix: The width of escape routes is based on width of the stretcher with a nurse accompanying on the side. The width of the doors must support easily the width of the stretcher. EU/2004/54/EC 2.3.3 Emergency exits allow tunnel users to leave the tunnel without their vehicles and reach a safe place in case of an accident or a fire and also provide an access on foot to the tunnel for emergency services. Examples of such emergency exits are: direct exits from the tunnel to the outside, cross connections between tunnel tubes, exits to an emergency gallery, shelters with an escape route separate from the tunnel tube.

OCR for page 160
178 TABLE F5-5 TURNING AREAS (NFPA 502, 56) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.3.1...In tunnels more than 1000 m (3,280 ft) long, provision must be made Circ2000- at approximately every 800 m (2,625 ft) for... them to turn round... 63A2 Switzerland/ In bidirectional traffic tunnels > 1.5 every 23 km turning bays. Design Germany/RABT 2.5.6 Turning bays are standard equipment for tunnels > 900 m (2,953 ft), to be considered for tunnels 600 to 900 m (1,968 to 2,953 ft). Austria/RVS RVS 9.233 Dimension of turning areas. RVS 9.281 In category III and IV tunnels (see 4.4) with two-directional traffic, a turning area is necessary instead of each fourth lay by. Alternatively an escape tube for vehicles could be situated. Norway/Road 408.1 ...Turning bays are arranged in tunnels with contra flow traffic. Lay bys Tunnels function as turning bays for cars. Turning bays for larger vehicles are arranged as specified in figures... Normal distances between turning bays (for large vehicles) in class B, C and D are 2000 m (6,562 ft), 1500 m (4,921 ft), and 1000 m (3,280 ft). Korea GIST: For tunnels over 1000 m long, spacing between turning areas shall not exceed 750 m. Emergency stopping lanes can be used as turning areas. NFPA 502 No requirements (2008 edition) UK/BD78/99 3.19 Turning Bays: In tunnels of over 5 km (3.1 mi) length, turning bays of sufficient size to enable a truck to turn around shall be provided, not more than 1 km (3,280.8 ft) from the middle of the tunnel. To be considered in class AA. TABLE F5-6 EMERGENCY SERVICES STATION AT PORTALS (NFPA 502) Country/ Requirement Guideline France/ 2.3.2 A location 12 m (39.4 ft) long and 3 m (9.8 ft) wide for parking an Circ2000- emergency vehicle shall be provided outside, close to the ends... 63A2 In addition to this ... an arrangement enabling emergency vehicles to turn around/move from one roadway to another shall be provided externally, close to the portals. UK/BD78/99 3.20 Emergency Services Parking: If necessary, an area close to the tunnel portals shall be provided for the parking of police and emergency services vehicles and equipment when attending a tunnel incident.