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48 TABLE 10 LIST OF INTERNATIONAL TUNNEL AGENCIES THAT RESPONDED TO THE SURVEY Agency Tunnel Name Swedish Road Gota Tunnel Administration Vgverket (Sweden) Sdra Lnken Mak Hungary M6 South (Hungary) Korea Expressway Average from 280 tunnels (555 tubes) Corporation Jookryung Ministre des Ville-Marie transports du Qubec Lafontaine (Canada) Sydney Harbour Sydney Harbour Tunnel Tunnel Company connections (dry or wet). Of the 20 responses that reported BEST DESIGN PRACTICE on the kind of fire life safety system used, all use tunnel ven- tilation and 9 stated that their tunnel(s) is/are provided with Most of the U.S. agencies responding use NFPA 502, match- an emergency egress. There is a wide range of communica- ing the FHWA as the most common guidance/standard used tion systems used by rescue personnel and others for fire by agencies to address the fire design issues for new and retro- emergency, the most frequent one being a radio or cell phone fitted tunnels. Designers are usually required to follow the (18 of 30 responses). Almost half of the U.S. tunnels reporting NFPA 502 when agencies specify the design fire size and fire (14 of 30) stated that they have tow trucks available for emer- curve. Most of the time (9 of 10), designers implemented only gency response by either owning them or having the services security with no blast analysis. A large majority of the respon- available in-house. Ten tunnels reported that they contract out ders (28 of 31) do not have a standard for their agency tunnel for tow trucks. design and for fire rating. Only a few of the international agencies reported on the Many of the responding U.S. tunnel agencies (25 of 31, strengths of their agencies' fire management programs or 80%) consider themselves as the Authority Having Juris- barriers or difficulties that were encountered in implement- diction. Usually no risk assessment is approached for fire ing fire management. When asked to explain the strengths engineering (20 of 30 responses). State police, fire, or local of the agency's fire management program, two of the four responders have the role of incident commander (17 of 31 responses (both from Korea) noted that they have a manual responses). procedure, that they are skilled with fire drills, and that they receive feedback from design and construction. Australia's More than half (16 of 31) would consider protection of the Sydney Harbour Tunnel Company responds with an "imme- tunnel with the fixed fire suppression sprinkler system to meet diate use of a deluge system if required." All international the new NFPA 502 maximum fire HRR requirements, if proven agencies reported on the kind of fire-detection system used, effective. Most of the agencies (29 of 31) have not identi- where multiple selections were allowed. All seven chose fied gaps in research and design for tunnel fire safety or fire phones, followed by six with CCTV and five with Linear Heat detection and protection. However, Maryland Transportation Detection. Of the six that reported on the kind of fire protec- Authority's Fort McHenry Tunnel and Baltimore Harbor Tun- tion system used, all chose fire extinguishers in the tunnel, and nel reported that commercially available devices/materials to five have fire hydrants along the tunnel. Of the seven inter- satisfy some code requirements are not reliable or maintainable national agencies that reported on the kind of fire life safety inside tunnels. These two agencies stated that in eliminating the system used, all use tunnel ventilation, followed by six that gaps to improve tunnel fire safety a strategy would be to provide emergency egress. Of the seven international agencies reporting on the communication systems used by rescue per- Consider co-development of specifications (industry standards) for the devices along with the fire-code requirements such that sonnel and others for fire emergency, two reported using radio reliable and maintainable devices are commercially available repeaters. The rest chose different communication devices, that are designed for the tunnel environment. Consider the typi- including other types of radios. cal tunnel cleaning/washing operation, chemicals and pollutants