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50 Seventy-two percent of national and international tun- and the longest duration was 25 min. The Eisenhower/Johnson nels are under 24 h supervision, 87% reported that their tun- Memorial Tunnels reported one barrier or difficulty encoun- nels operate uni-directionally, whereas 52% never operate tered when implementing fire management, where there in bi-directional mode, even if there is construction and were technical issues regarding minimal emphasis on training. maintenance in the other, parallel tube. Gasoline tankers are The tunnels use only CCTV for its incidence (fire) detection freely allowed in 42% of national and international tunnels, system. The fire protection system in the tunnel involves whereas only four allow them to travel with supervision fire extinguishers, fire hydrants, and a fire apparatus. The when the tunnel is closed to normal traffic (none of the fire life safety system involves tunnel ventilation and an international tunnels). Fifty-five percent of the national and emergency egress. They believed that a tunnel fire/system international tunnels reported that they do not actively screen simulator would be needed for operators to help manage or otherwise monitor truck cargoes entering the tunnel with- a fire. out disrupting the traffic flow, whereas the remaining 45% reported that they do. Among the international examples selected were Qubec's Ville-Marie & Lafontaine Tunnels, built in 1976 and 1967, Sixty percent of the tunnels reporting worldwide noted respectively, and the tunnels combined their responses. The that they need additional training for operators to manage a fire incident occurred in the Lafontaine Tunnel in 1982. This fire utilizing tunnel fire and systems simulators. tunnel fire was caused by a heavy goods truck and there was one fatality. Structural damage in the Lafontaine Tun- nel required tunnel closure for an extended period of time SELECTED IMPORTANT EXAMPLES (about 2 months). The combined data for the Ville-Marie & Lafontaine Tunnels noted one to two vehicle fire incidents per Among all the tunnels responding, the Port Authority of New year. The most severe vehicle fire incidents were from heavy York & New Jersey's The Holland Tunnel, built in 1927, was goods trucks. The fire department was involved every time one of the two tunnels that reported suffering structural dam- and investigations were done occasionally, depending on age as a result of a fire that required tunnel closure for an the fire size. The estimated maximum fire size was 20 MW extended period of time. It was also one of the two that (68 MBtu/hr) and the longest duration was 30 min. The tun- reported minor casualties. It was the only tunnel reporting two nels use telephones, video surveillance technology, and 911 to five vehicle fire incidents per year. The most severe vehicle for its fire-detection system. The fire protection system in the fire incidents in this tunnel were from a passenger car, a heavy tunnel involves fire extinguishers and fire hydrants. The fire goods truck, vans, and a truck load of magnesium in 1948. In life safety system involves tunnel ventilation and emergency The Holland Tunnel, the fire department is involved every egress. They believed that a tunnel fire/system simulator time and investigations have been performed occasionally would be needed for operators to help manage a fire. depending on the fire size. There is no information on its esti- mated maximum fire size or its duration. Continuous training Australia's Sydney Harbour Tunnel, built in 1992 with a has been suggested. life expectancy more than 100 years, is protected by a fixed fire suppression system. For fire detection, this tunnel uses The Holland Tunnel uses pull stations, CCTV, telephones, CCTV, telephones, heat detection (other than linear), tunnel and linear heat detection in its fire-detection system. The fire smoke detection, and video surveillance technology. For fire protection system in the tunnel involves fire extinguishers, protection, this tunnel uses fire extinguishers and fire hydrants fire hydrants, fire apparatus, and a wet standpipe system with in the tunnel; a fire sprinkler system, a fire apparatus, and fire hose connections. The fire life safety system involves tun- foam are stored in the tunnel. For fire life safety, this tunnel nel ventilation and an emergency egress. It was reported that uses tunnel ventilation, an emergency egress, and an egress periodic hot smoke fire tests are conducted in the tunnel to pressurization system. A waterscreen displaying a 7 4.5 m train the operators and verify system performance. They (23 14.8 ft) stop sign is used to minimize or eliminate prob- believed that a tunnel fire/systems simulator would be useful lems such as congestion and traffic management during a for operators to help manage a fire. fire. Cars, buses, trucks, and HGVs use this tunnel, and there is an average of less than one vehicle fire incident each year. Other U.S. tunnels of interest are the Colorado DOT The fire department is occasionally involved in fire fighting Eisenhower/Johnson Memorial Tunnels, built in 1973 and and there is an investigation after each fire. A passenger car 1979, respectively. Although it only had minor damages (no fire was considered to be the most severe vehicle fire inci- structural damage), it was one of the two that reported minor dent. A deluge sprinkler was used in managing the fire casualties. It reports having one to two vehicle fire incidents event. Although this incident caused no damage to the tun- per year. The most severe vehicle fire incidents in this tun- nel, it was closed for operation for more than 30 min. There nel were from recreational vehicles and motor homes. The were no casualties. The estimated maximum fire size was fire department is involved occasionally for both tunnels and 3 MW (10 MBtu/hr) and lasted 10 min. There are various investigations have been performed every time. The esti- exercises and other training provided to staff and first respon- mated maximum fire size was 1520 MW (5168 MBtu/hr) ders to ensure proficiency in response to an incident. They