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79 CHAPTER TEN COMPILATION OF DESIGN GUIDANCE, STANDARDS, AND REGULATIONS Design guidance, regulations, standards, and reports developed The tunnel, the emergency exits, and rescue access around the world are shown in Table 25. This table was lighting are defined by a minimal assisted luminance compiled from a review of different literature sources. level. The requirements for traffic signage, both outside and PIARC, NFPA, the United Nations (UN), European Union within the tunnel, and signage for pedestrian exit and (EU) requirements and other international guidelines are well rescue, are generally clearly outlined in the guidelines. recognized around the world. EU Directive 2004/54/EC aims Communication and alarm systems, such as emergency at ensuring a minimum level of safety for road users in tunnels telephones and alarm push-buttons are generally con- in the trans-European network. sidered to be the minimum basic elements. However, the required spacing varies from 50 to 250 m (164 to The U.K. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (BD 820.2 ft); the value of 150 m (492.1 ft) is specified by the 78/99) covers the procedures required for the design of new European directive. Requirements focused on the auto- and refurbished road tunnels (53). In addition, it provides guid- matic alarms on equipment, automatic incident detection, ance for the necessary equipment and the required operational fire or smoke detection, and on radio rebroadcast. The and maintenance systems. PIARC is currently developing new installation of loudspeakers within the tunnel itself is not recommendations on tunnel fire safety design that are sched- common, but requested in the evacuation facilities or uled to be released in 2011. shelters for the users. For traffic regulation and monitoring equipment, mea- Traffic density and tunnel length is determined in the defi- surements must be adapted to the surveillance level of the nition of the safety measures of many countries. This allows tunnel. Guidelines were primarily established to allow several countries to define tunnel categories (United Kingdom, for quick detection of the traffic incidents, such as traffic Austria, Norway, France, Japan, and United States). speed, density measurement, video control, and the means for a quick closure of the tunnel. The thermographic por- The passenger exit and the emergency access for rescue tal detectors that locate abnormally hot trucks before they staff generally are covered by national regulations. Inter- enter the tunnel are never prescribed. distances between escape routes vary from 100 to 400 m The requirements for an emergency power supply for (328.1 to 1,312.3 ft); the European directive defines a the safety equipment are generally well-specified. maximum distance of 500 m (1,640.4 ft). NFPA 502 does Regarding fire fighting, the distribution of fire extinguish- not allow for emergency exits to be spaced more than ers and fire hydrants of sufficient capacity throughout the 300 m (984.3 ft) apart, with spacing justified by engi- tunnel, as well as the presence of a water network and fire neering analysis. The spacing requirement for shelters is hydrants of sufficient capacity, are prescriptive. Sev- not as frequent; however, these must have an access way eral countries place hydrants every 150 and 250 m (492.1 connected to the outside (France, European directive). and 820.2 ft), whereas the European directive notes the In many countries, the drainage of flammable liq- maximum value of 500 m (1,640.4 ft). The installation uid appears to be a well-defined safety element, with of a fixed fire suppression system is not imposed in any civil engineering and geometry arrangements specially regulation. adapted. For safety equipment, ventilation and smoke control The structure and equipment require ample fire require- during a fire are considered fundamental and in most ments. The structural resistance requirements vary from countries are defined by detailed guidelines. From these very prescriptive requirements (Germany) to more or less guidelines the following can be summarized: Mechan- performance-based criteria (France, Austria, and Norway). ical ventilation is a necessity for long tunnels. The The criteria are given in terms of duration and specified fire required air volumes and velocities or the objectives curves or HRRs. Documented calculations are required in all must be met according to the selected design fire (per- guidelines. Equipment resistance to heat is specified by heat formance-based approach). Requirements are speci- reaction or resistance. The European directive defines fied to prevent smoke penetrating emergency exits and these requirements much less precisely than many national rescue access. guidelines. The following gaps have been noted

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80 TABLE 25 DESIGN GUIDANCE, REGULATIONS, STANDARDS, AND REPORTS DEVELOPED AROUND THE WORLD Country Title ID Type Publisher/Year 1 U.S. NFPA 502 NFPA Standard 2008 and proposal for 2011 edition 2 U.S. Prevention and U.S.DOT, FHWA Report FHWA.dot.gov (2002) Control of Highway Tunnel Fires 3 U.S. Underground U.S.DOT, FHWA, Report NCHRP 06.2006 Transportation AASHTO Systems in Europe 4 U.S. Making TCRP, NCHRP Report TCRP Report 86/NCHRP Transportation Report 525 Tunnels Safe and Secure 5 U.S. Enclosed Vehicular ASHRAE Handbook 2011 (every 4 years) Facilities 6 UN Recommendations of UN Report Economic and Social the Group of Experts TRANS/AC.7.9 Council, Inland Transport on Safety in Road Committee (2001) Tunnels 7 Australia Fire Safety Guideline AFAC Guideline Australian Fire Authority for Road Tunnels Council (2001) 8 Austria Guidelines and RVS, IBS Guideline Transportation and Road Regulations for Road Research Tunnel Design Association (2001) 9 Austria Guidance document BFV Code (regulation) Austrian fire department. A-13 for fire safety in document based on road tunnels European Directive 2004AEA4/EC 10 France Inter-ministry circular Circular Government Ministry for intra- no. 2000-63 of 25 2000t63A2; circular structure, transport, August 2000 relating CETU, CNPP; spatial planning tourism, to the safety of INERIS and the sea (2000) tunnels in the national highways network 11 France Inter-ministerial Circ2000-82N2 Governmental Ministry for intra- circular no.2000-82 circular structure, transport, of 30 November spatial planning tourism, 2000 concerning the and the sea (2000) regulation of traffic with dangerous goods in road tunnels of the national network 12 France Law no. 2002-3 of 3 Law2002-J2 Law Law 2002-3, art. 2 January 2002 relative to safety of infrastructures and transport systems, etc. 13 France Risk studies for road ESD Guidelines Guide 2002 tunnels: Guide to methodology (continued on next page)

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81 TABLE 25 (continued) 14 Germany Guidelines for RABT, DMT, Guidelines Road and Transportation equipment and SOLIT, STUVA, Research Association operation of road VdS, VFDB tunnels 15 Germany ZTV Additional ZTVTunnel Technical 1995 Technical Conditions addendum 1999 for the Construction of Road Tunnels - Part 1 Closed Construction - Part 2 Open Construction 16 Italy Tunnel lighting UNIMilano Guidelines July 2003 U29000240 17 Italy Circular 6 Dec. 1999. Circular Governmental 1999 Safety of Traffic in 06.12.1999 circular Road Tunnels with Particular Reference to Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Materials 18 Italy Functional and Ministry of Ministerial General Inspectorate for geometrical standard Infrastructure and decree Traffic and Road Safety for construction Transport of roads 19 Japan Design Principles, -- Corporation Japan Highway Vol. 3 guideline Public Corporation (Tunnel) Part (4) (1998) (Tunnel Safety facilities) 20 Japan Installation Standards Safety standards Japan Highway for Road Tunnel Public Corporation Emergency Facilities 21 Korea National Fire Safety NFSC Code (regulation) Korea National Codes Emergency Management Agency 22 Korea Guideline for GIST Guideline Ministry of Construction Installation of & Transportation (2004) Safety Facility in Road Tunnels 23 Netherlands Technical standards Rijkswaterstaat; Guideline Dutch Ministry of for the provisions and TNO (UPTUN) Transport and National installations RWS Regulator curves 24 Norway Norwegian design Public Roads Guideline/ Handbook 021 guide, roads, tunnels Administration, manual issued by Directorate of public authority Public Roads 25 Norway Road Tunnels Staten Vegvesen Government Norwegian Public Roads (SINTEF NBL) guideline Administration, Directorate of Public Roads (2004) 26 Norway Risk analysis of fire (Norwegian Guideline for a Issued in road tunnels Council for Norwegian by the Standardisation (continued on next page)

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82 TABLE 25 (continued) Construction Standard Council (2000) Standards) 27 Russia Construction Rules SNIP Guideline State Construction and Regulations Committee (GOSSTROI) (SNIP) # 32-04-97 "Railway and Road Tunnels" 28 Spain Manual for the IOS-98 Manuals are Nov. 1998 Design, Construction effectively and Operation of standards Tunnels 29 Spain Road Instruction, IC Norma 3.1 Dec. 1999 Norm, Alignment 30 Spain Road Instruction, IC Norma 8.1 Dec. 1999 Norm, Vertical signals 31 Sweden Tunnel 2004 Tunnel 2004 Guideline Swedish National Road Administration (2004) 32 Sweden Comparison and SP Report 2007:08 Report SP Swedish National Review of Safety Testing and Research Design Guidelines for Institute Report 2007 Road Tunnels 33 Sweden Model Scale Tunnel SP Report 2006:56 Report SP Swedish National Fire Tests: Sprinkler Testing and Research Institute Brandforskprojekt 406- 021 34 Switzerland Guidelines for the ASTRA (Swiss Guidelines by the 2005 (updated) Design of Road Federal Roads federal roads Tunnels. Office) office 35 Switzerland Ventilation of Road ASTRA (Swiss Guidelines Federal roads office Tunnels, Selection of Federal Roads (2004) System, Design and Office) Operation 36 UK Design Manual for BD 78/99 Guideline and The Highway Agency Roads and Bridges, requirements (1999) Vol. 2: Highway Structure Design Section 2, Part 9, BD 78/99: Design of Road Tunnels 37 EU Directive 2004/54/EC Directive Code (regulation) European of the European 2004/54/EC parliament and the parliament and the council (2004) council 38 EU European Tunnel UPTUN; L-SURF Recommendation www.uptun.net; www.l- Research Program surf.org 39 PIARC Fire and Smoke PIARC Recommendation PIARC (1999) Control in Road Tunnels 05.05.B 40 PIARC Road Tunnels: PIARC Recommendation PIARC (2008) Operational Strategies for Emergency Ventilation 41 PIARC Road Safety in PIARC Recommendation PIARC (1995) (continued on next page)