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10 CHAPTER TWO DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC VIDEO SURVEILLANCE IN TRANSIT SYSTEMS The impact of the September 11, 2001, attacks using airplanes vention and to patron and employee safety. In the Transpor- as weapons of destruction has had an incalculable impact tation Research Record, Aaron Eder observed that "good on discussions of transportation security. It is reflected in security systems can increase the difficulty of terrorist oper- virtually all post-9/11 literature; it is almost impossible to ations, increase the likelihood of terrorists being detected, find any discussion of surface transit security measures that minimize injuries and loss of life, decrease panic, and calm focuses on nonterrorist-related safety or security concerns. riders during times of panic." This is equally true for less This focus has intensified since the subsequent terrorist dramatic events on transit systems (Eder 2001, p. 94). activities involving transit systems in Madrid, Spain, on March 11, 2004, in London, England, on July 7, 2005 (where A chronology of terrorist events against transit systems surveillance technology played a role in post-event investi- compiled by the Norman Y. Mineta International Institute gation), in Mumbai (Bombay), India, on July 11, 2006, and for Surface Transportation Policy Studies Institute (MTI) in Moscow, Russia, on March 29, 2010, while this study was listed close to 4,000 events between January 1972 and under way. August 2004 (Designing and Operating Safe and Secure Transit Systems 2005). Other studies, which are often based In addition, the May 1, 2010, attempted bombing in New on similar or overlapping databases, have reported similar York City's Times Square, where the transit system was not numbers. One study estimated that rail-related attacks, none the primary focus of the attack but would have been seriously in the United States, averaged 30 per year between 1998 and affected by it, led New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg 2003 (Peterman 2005). More recently, in a commentary fol- to renew his call for an expanded surveillance network. At lowing the Moscow bombings, former TSA administrator the same time, images of someone who turned out not to be a Kip Hawley and his co-authors counted 11 ground transpor- suspect but were widely circulated led to debate among secu- tation incidents versus 53 attacks on airline and airports dur- rity professionals about the value of video as a preventive or ing the same time period (Hawley et al. 2010). a post-incident (forensic) investigatory tool. Regardless of the actual numbers of incidents and how The debate was tempered when, within weeks of the these compare with those on other transportation modes, Moscow bombing and the failed Times Square bombing, terrorist activity on rail systems around the world has influ- India suffered yet another terrorist attack on its rail system. enced the utilization of electronic video surveillance tech- In this incident, on May 28, 2010, a Mumbai-bound passen- nology well beyond its original use primarily as a passenger ger train collided with a freight train after someone sabo- traffic control and risk management tool. taged tracks in the state of West Bengal, resulting in more than 70 deaths and more than 100 injuries only 1 week after the same suspects were believed to have blown up a bus car- HISTORY OF ELECTRONIC VIDEO SURVEILLANCE IN rying civilians and police officers. Although a Maoist group TRANSIT was blamed for the crash, within days the Communist Party of India said that it was not involved. India has not provided Despite this exhaustive focus on antiterrorism electronic information on who else might have been responsible and video surveillance, its uses have always been far broader. has continued to view the Maoists as the most likely perpe- The earliest uses of video surveillance were associated with trators ("India: Maoists Deny..." 2010). passenger traffic control and managing risk related to over- crowding, nonpayment, fire, and accidents and injuries. Sub- Thus, while the current synthesis focuses on the uses sequently, surveillance came to be viewed as part of crime of video surveillance for broader purposes than terrorism prevention strategies, especially as these began to concen- concerns, the literature review is skewed in that direction trate on the intertwined roles of deterring crime while also owing to the single-issue focus of many of the recent studies. enhancing patron perception of safety. Initially, video moni- But vulnerability measures taken to prevent terrorist attacks toring was employed primarily to assist in fare compliance. from occurring also have applicability to general crime pre- Cameras were placed in entry areas to allow for observation