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16 The post-incident investigation report, commonly USE OF SURVEILLANCE BY TRANSIT SYSTEMS referred to as the Fennell Report after its chair, Desmond WORLDWIDE Fennell, led to changes in fire standards. The report also highlighted the absence of interoperable communica- Despite the focus on recent acts of terrorism against rail net- tions, firefighters' lack of knowledge of the station, the works, rail-directed terrorism has a long international his- station's general lack of cleanliness and its low mainte- tory. Among the attacks on the Italian rail network was one nance standards, and the lack of emergency access/egress outside Bologna in 1974 that killed 12 people and injured 48; policies. All these are today considered standard features another in 1980 at the Bologna station that killed 40 people of emergency management plans (Making Transportation and injured almost 300; and one in 1986, also in the Bologna Tunnels Safe and Secure 2006, pp. 3942). Finally, the area that killed 12 people and injured almost 200. In 1986, report noted that transit systems had introduced video sur- Chile saw 78 explosive-related incidents on its rail system. veillance that in addition to proving effective in reducing Two subway bombings occurred in Paris in 1995, includ- crime, allowed better control of stations primarily to deal ing one in July on a commuter rail train entering the under- with the specific dangers presented by crowding and fires ground Saint-Michel station during rush hour that killed 7 (Butcher 1990). people and injured 80 when the explosion led to a fireball that measured over 3,000C at its epicenter. A second Paris Video surveillance cameras in the LU continue to serve bombing occurred only 3 months later at the Orsay Museum the dual functions of operations management and crime pre- station. Attributed to the Armed Islamic Group, it resulted vention. One system is used primarily for its original pur- in no deaths but more than two dozen injuries. In May 2010, pose of managing and operating patron flow and ensuring, this event received renewed publicity when French police for instance, that doors clear the platforms. The second sys- arrested 14 men they suspected of plotting the escape from tem, which includes recording capabilities, is used primarily prison of one of the bombers. In Argentina, in 2008, com- for law enforcement purposes, with images fed to a central muters set fire to a train that had delayed their morning location under police control (Loukaitou-Sideris et al. 2006, commute in what officials believed was sabotage by leftist p. 737). political activists. A similar incident involving commuters had occurred at the main railway station a year earlier. Bus The use of video surveillance throughout the United King- bombings have been frequent throughout Israel, including in dom, not only on transit but also in parking lots, town cen- its two major cities of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, where suicide ters (downtowns or shopping districts), and entertainment bombers often targeted bus stations and shelters in addition areas, particularly where there are taverns that attract young to the vehicles themselves, particularly after it became more patrons, has received considerably more attention than in the difficult for them to enter the buses unobserved. United States. In the face of a number of academic studies that drew few definitive conclusions, in 2007 the London Evening Nerve Gas Becomes a New Terrorist Tactic Standard compared surveillance cameras in different parts of London, including the transit system, and claimed that police The Kasumigaseki subway station in Tokyo, Japan, was the were "no more likely to catch offenders in areas with hun- scene of a nerve gas attack carried out by the Aum Shin- dreds of cameras than in those with hardly any." This was rikyo religious sect when members of the group released despite expenditures of more than 200 million (about $294 five canisters of diluted sarin, an extremely toxic chemical, million in 2010) (Davenport 2007). disguised in lunch boxes and soft drinks on five separate subway trains during the morning rush hour. Although only In the face of recent criticism of the widespread reli- 12 people died, between 5,000 and 6,000 were exposed to ance on surveillance throughout the country, in May 2010 the sarin gas. This is an example of the vulnerability of tran- the ConservativeLiberal Democrat coalition govern- sit systems even when they are not the primary target, as ment announced that curbs would be placed on the "tens the cult members released the gas on these particular trains of thousands of closed-circuit television cameras in public not with the aim of killing transit passengers, but of causing areas" owing to their "little impact on crime rates over the deaths in police headquarters and other government build- years." The new deputy prime minister, Nick Clegg, noted ings in the area immediately above the stations. that it was "outrageous that decent, law-abiding citizens get treated as if they have got something to hide" (Burns Unlike many countries in Europe where transit security is May 20, 2010, p. A6). But within slightly more than a fort- a national issue, but like the United States and Canada where night of the announcement, police claimed to have solved planning tends to be localized, the Japanese government a major crime after viewing images from security cameras provides guidance to transit operators on security issues that outside the home of a suspect who was charged with hav- are recommendations rather than regulations. In response to ing killed a woman who was visible on the camera, one of a the attack, both the Tokyo Metro and the Toei Subway added number of women he is believed to have slain (Burns May patrols by both their own staffs and private security officers 28, 2010, p. A4). and installed more than 2,000 video surveillance cameras.

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17 Similar to U.S. crime prevention strategies, signs were also In 1985, when Hong Kong extended its 6-year-old Mass posted in stations and on railcars, and announcements were Transit Railway (MTR) by opening the 12-station Hong Kong added reminding passengers to report suspicious persons Island Line, surveillance played a major role in its protection and objects. In addition, trash cans were removed from all plans even though the new line was a change from single- public areas, as is true in many U.S. transit systems today. level stations to some as many as seven levels deep. Here, too, researchers have been reluctant to attribute the low crime The King's Cross fire and the Tokyo sarin attack high- rate on the railway solely to the cameras. The transit system light the importance of train control, which today is often is policed by a unit of the Royal Hong Kong Police Depart- video-assisted. In King's Cross, the fire was fueled by drafts ment. Response times to incidents observed on the monitors caused by the failure to halt train movements. In Tokyo, the have been described as "an almost miraculous 60 seconds-- sarin was carried from station to station by moving trains maximum--on a station, or two and a half minutes if the and doors continuing to open as the trains moved through officer has to come by train from another station" (The Police the stations. Journal 1985, pp. 265266). As with WMATA and MARTA, the MTR incorporates many features of CPTED; stations are well-lit and built without blind spots or niches, and there are no public toilets, luggage lockers, or food stalls. This assists those who monitor the video cameras by minimizing the rea- sons anyone might be observed doing anything but waiting for a train or exiting a train (see Figure 1). Concerned about graffiti, public order, and more serious crimes on its transit system in the mid-1990s, the Dutch Min- FIGURE 1 This is an example of a reminder to passengers. istry of Transport added surveillance cameras to its buses Deutsche Bahn posts signs on its buses and railcars reminding patrons of its 24-hour hotline for reporting but relied on enhanced human security on its rail lines. Rail vandalism; many portions of the system are also under video officials tried to address the unemployment problem and the surveillance. Photo courtesy of Dorothy M. Schulz. need for extra security by recruiting unemployed men as watchmen. Although they lacked police authority and did Learning from One Another not carry weapons or handcuffs, the men patrolled stations to act as deterrents to miscreants. Surveillance observations A transit system following ideas and plans established by on the buses found that most problems involved aggressive others is common. Just as the Tokyo Metro turned to tactics youths who frightened regular patrons, resulting in most used by a number of U.S. systems, in mid-May 2010, Prague, of the youths being referred to their schools for handling the capital of the Czech Republic, announced that the sen- (Smeets and Jacobs 1996, pp. 3233). sor and camera system it began planning for in the wake of the Tokyo attacks would be operational within 2 weeks. The The Tri-County Metropolitan Transit District (Tri-Met) city's public transport company announced that in addition in Portland, Oregon, introduced a similar citizen-based pro- to surveillance cameras, the system would include sensors gram decades ago. A Rider Advocate group, consisting of a that can detect leakages and send information to the opera- supervisor and ten people recruited from a nonprofit neigh- tions center and to police and would automatically activate borhood coalition, randomly rode buses that had a high rate instructions to passengers to assist in evacuations ("Prague of gang-related incidents; they were paid and identified with deploys sensors..." 2010). This, too, follows actions taken in Tri-Met through their jackets and patches. The program, the United States, where a number of systems have installed which currently operates in partnership with Victory Out- sensors to fulfill a variety of roles. reach Community Services, was initially expanded as part of the AmeriCorps program to include college-age community Whether for passenger or risk management, crime pre- residents who received stipends and tuition benefits in return vention, or terrorism concerns, many countries have turned for their participation. All advocates are selected and work in to video surveillance in their transit systems. In New South accordance with Tri-Met's guidelines. Wales, Australia, CityRail introduced cameras in the 1980s; by 1991, cameras blanketed about 25 of its highest-risk sta- France also has a lengthy history of terrorist activity. tions, including more than 50 cameras at Redfern and almost Between 1970 and 1995, terrorists carried out more than 20 that many at North Sydney. The installation of the cameras attacks on French surface transportation systems (Fink 2003, was highly publicized. Rail staff believed that the cameras p. 1822). The Paris Transport Authority (Rgie Autonome had reduced assaults in the stations as well as graffiti activ- des Transports Parisiens or RAPT), the agency that oversees ity, but researchers found this difficult to confirm because the Mtro, bus, and tramway service in and around Paris, tended installation of the cameras was accompanied by an increase in the 1980s to view its communications and surveillance in security officers (Easteal and Wilson 1991, pp. 1920). networks as parts of its station management and fire preven-

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18 tion programs rather than as crime or terrorist prevention described the surveillance system as serving a number of pur- tools. The system's fire prevention tactics in 1989 included poses, including control of patron traffic patterns, passenger station telephones linked to RAPT headquarters and the fire safety, management of emergencies and crises, and remote brigade, with surveillance cameras allowing staff to monitor observation of unprotected areas. The central control room public areas as well as the system's electrical and mechanical included real-time monitoring of the surveillance images by plant (Simony and Loesche 1989). More recently, Camille civilian personnel, who were able to make announcements to Fink (2003) described RAPT as having enhanced security patrons with a public address system. They were also able to that now includes physical barriers, alarm systems, and a remotely configure the system's functions to focus on particu- surveillance network that relies on software to allow opera- lar areas or images. In addition to monitoring patron areas, tors to bring up a particular image from any one of more than cameras were also installed to view yards and storage areas. 4,000 cameras. Watching Now or Watching Later In a study of Mtor (Mtro Est-Ouest Rapide), a line developed to provide service to Paris' northern and southern Throughout this synthesis, viewing in real time is defined suburbs, Marina L. Myhre and Fabien Rosso (1996) com- as someone watching the monitors with the capability of pared it to WMATA as it, too, was planned to allay pas- making public address announcements, dispatching agency sengers' fears of crime and disorder by designing in CPTED police or emergency personnel to the location, or contacting elements. In contrast to most of the existing stations on the local emergency responders. Response could be to crimes in 13 Paris Mtro lines, where stations had multiple entrance/ progress, patron calls for assistance, safety-related matters, exits and long, winding corridors, and lacked surveillance or rail operations activities that require immediate response. cameras, Mtor was designed to include two surveillance Not all cameras are viewed in real time; those that are not cameras at platform ends and onboard cameras linked to a are used for retroactive or forensic investigation by police systemwide control center. In addition to surveillance cam- officers. In these instances, the images are used to assist eras, Mtor relies on a number of other security features in investigation of events that have already occurred but similar to U.S. systems. As with WMATA, uniformed and that the transit agency or other authorities have determined plainclothes attendants are present in the stations and are require follow-up activity. Examples could be crimes, safety equipped with two-way radios to communicate with police hazards, accidents, or derailments. and, as MARTA, a variety of intercoms, call buttons, and emergency alarms enable the command center to com- A U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) report municate with operators and passengers through the pub- released in 2006 on passenger rail security found that five lic address system (Loukaitou-Sideris et al. 2006, p. 732). countries that were not identified had centralized the process These features can be found on MARTA and on a number of for performing research and developing passenger rail secu- newer U.S. light rail systems but are more difficult to install rity technologies as well as for maintaining a clearinghouse and maintain on older systems, where either the technical on technology and best practices. The report noted that U.S. capacity is lacking or where vandalism results in high mal- rail agencies interviewed for the study expressed an interest in function rates. a more active centralized research and development authority (Hecker 2006, p. 15). Recently, alluding to this greater level Spain has also witnessed considerable terrorist activity, of centralization, Amtrak Vice President and Chief of Police primarily at the hands of the Basque independence orga- John O'Connor told members of the Senate Committee on nization, ETA, which was initially suspected of having Commerce, Science, and Transportation that Amtrak had caused the March 11, 2004, attack on Renfe, the national become the first American rail police department to become rail system, before it was determined to have been carried an associate member of RAILPOL, a European organization out by al Qaeda operatives. Although municipal police pro- of rail and transit security agencies that were cooperating to tect Metro Madrid, Renfe has its own police force; the two share intelligence, coordinate activities, and improve counter- share responsibility for both crime prevention and response terror capabilities (O'Connor 2010, p. 4). to crimes. Since the attacks, stations have been retrofitted with anti-intrusion and detection systems, and additional Estimating the Number of Cameras surveillance cameras and private security officers are now employed to monitor patron and employee areas (Loukaitou- Although video surveillance has proliferated as a law Sideris et al. 2006, p. 740). enforcement tool in the United States, its use is far more common throughout Europe and Asia. A review of rail In 1998, responding primarily to patron reports of feelings security measures in 2007 found that almost all European of insecurity and to damage to equipment caused by vandalism, Union countries that had not previously installed surveil- the Italian railway system developed a command and control lance equipment on their rail systems had done so in the system to centrally manage railway operations that included a aftermath of terrorist activities, including, for instance, the surveillance system. Nino Ronetti and Carlo Dambra (2000) installation of 1,500 security cameras to guard the Belgian